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Unit 05 ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTATION in Electronic Engineering

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Important Questions For Electronic Engineering:
*Unit-01     *Unit-02    
*Unit-03    *Unit-04 
*Unit-05    *Short-Q/Ans
*Question-Paper with solution 21-22 

Q1. Explain the basic principle of digital voltmeter with the help of block diagram. What are the characteristics of DVM ? 

Ans. Digital Voltmeter : 

  • 1. The digital voltmeter (DVM) is a tool for indication. DVM is mostly used to measure the voltage between two locations. It shows discrete numerals for either DC or AC voltage. 
  • 2. It is a helpful laboratory tool with a variety of uses. Additionally, it is a valuable component of digital instrumentation systems. In systems for processing data, the DVM is frequently utilised.
  • 3. In order to prevent it from consuming any current from the circuit, an ideal voltmeter has an infinitely high input resistance. 
  • 4. Think about a metre with a 1000 Ω low input resistance. Because the metre shunts the resistance, it is unable to provide a correct reading for the voltage across a resistance of the same magnitude. 
  • 5. As a result, it’s crucial to calculate the ohms per volt loading impact of a voltmeter. 
  • 6. The block diagram of a digital voltmeter is shown in Fig. It has three stages : 
    • a. Signal preparation, 
    • b. Analog to digital conversion, and 
    • c. Display unit. 
Explain the basic principle of digital voltmeter with the help of block diagram. What are the characteristics of DVM
  • 7. The signal preparation stage, also known as the input circuit, changes the signal’s amplitude in accordance with the needs and guards against loading the source. 
  • 8. Here, the big incoming signal is attenuated using a resistive attenuator, and the small incoming signal is amplified to observable levels using an amplifier. 
  • 9. In essence, digital voltmeters are analogue to digital converters with digital displays that show the voltage being measured.
  • 10. Digital voltmeter can be categorized as follows :  
Unit 05 ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTATION in Electronic Engineering

General characteristics : 

  • 1. Discrete numbers representing the measurement of OC or AC voltage are shown on the digital voltmeter (DVM).
  • 2. This is beneficial in many applications since it decreases interpolation and human reading errors, speeds up reading, and produces output in digital format.
  • 3. DVM has following typical operating and performance features : 
Unit 05 ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTATION in Electronic Engineering

Q2. Explain with the help of neat diagram, working and characteristics curve of ramp type digital voltmeter. 


  • 1. The operation of a ramp type DVM is based on measuring how long it takes a linear ramp voltage to increase or fall from the level of the input voltage to zero volts, respectively.
Explain with the help of neat diagram, working and characteristics curve of ramp type digital voltmeter
  • 2. A ramp voltage is started at the beginning of the measurement cycle; this voltage may be positive going or negative going. The input voltage is compared to the downward ramp (unknown). 
  • 3. The comparator circuit emits a pulse that opens a gate at the precise moment the ramp voltage equals the unknown voltage. In Fig., this gate is depicted. 
  • 4. When the ramp voltage finally hits zero volts (or ground potential), a second comparator provides an output pulse that closes the gate.  
  • 5. A number of decade counting units (DCUs) track the number of clock pulses that have passed through the gate after they are generated by an oscillator.
  • 6. The input voltage’s magnitude is indicated by a decimal number that is shown via indicator tubes connected to the DCUs. 

Characteristic curve : 

Explain with the help of neat diagram, working and characteristics curve of ramp type digital voltmeter

Q3. What is CRO? Explain its basic principle. 


  • 1. An electrical tool called a Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO) provides a visual representation of a signal waveform. 
  • 2. It is frequently employed in laboratory work as well as for troubleshooting radio and television receivers. 
  • 3. It can also be used for measuring voltage, frequency and phase shift.  

Basic principle: 

  • 1. In a CRO, electrons are accelerated to a high speed and focused on a fluorescent screen as they are emitted from a cathode.
  • 2. Where the electron beam collides with the screen, a visible spot is created. 
  • 3. Electrons can be made to act as an electrical pencil of light that produces a spot of light wherever it strikes by deflecting the electron beam over the screen in response to an electrical signal.
  •  4. Due to their extremely low mass, electrons react almost instantly to electrical signals and can almost always trace even the fastest electrical fluctuations.
  • 5..A cathode ray tube and the accompanying power supplies are what make up a CRO. 

Q4. With the help of neat block diagram, explain the working of a CRO. 


  • 1.The cathode ray oscilloscope is a very useful and adaptable laboratory tool for measuring voltage, current, power, and frequency as well as for examining the waveforms of alternating currents and voltages.
  • 2. The block diagram ofCRO is shown in Fig.
With the help of neat block diagram, explain the working of a CRO

Block Diagram : 

  • 1. The CRO employs a cathode ray tube (CRT). 
  • 2. It produces an electron beam, accelerates it to a high speed, deflects it to produce a picture, and then eventually makes the electron beam visible on a phosphor screen.
  • 3. High voltage, of the order of a few thousand volts, is needed for the CRT to accelerate the beam while low voltage supply is needed for heating the electron gun for beam generation. 
  • 4. Between the electron gun and the screen are deflection plates that allow the beam to be bent based on the input signal. 
  • 5. Electron beam strikes the screen and creates a visible spot. 
  • 6. On the screen, this point is refracted at a constant time-dependent rate in the X direction. 
  • 7. Through the vertical amplifier, which elevates the input signal’s potential to a level that will allow for usable electron beam deflection, the input signal is delivered to the vertical deflection plates.
  • 8. Now electron beam deflects in 2 directions, horizontal on X-axis and vertical on Y-axis. 

Function of each block :

1. CRT : This cathode ray tube produces electrons, which impact an internal phosphor screen to provide a visual display of the signal.  

2. Vertical amplifier : Signals in the vertical part are amplified using this broad band amplifier.

3. Delay line : In the vertical parts, it is utilized to slightly delay the signal. 

4. Time base : It is utilized to provide the sawtooth voltage needed to deflect the horizontal section of the beam. 

5. Horizontal amplifier : Before being applied to horizontal deflection plates, this is utilized to enhance the sawtooth voltage.

6. Trigger circuit : This is used to convert the incoming signal into trigger pulses so that the input signal and the sweep frequency can be synchronized. 

7. Power supply : 

  • a. A negative High Voltage (HV) supply and a positive Low Voltage (LV) supply are the two power sources.
  • b. In the CRO, there are two voltages produced. The range of the positive voltage supply is + 300 to 400 V. The low-voltage supply ranges from -1000 to – 1500 V.
  • c. This voltage is passed through a bleeder resistor at a few mA.  
  • d. For controls over intensity, focus, and placement, the bleeder resistor provides the intermediate voltages. 

Q5. Explain digital storage oscilloscope with block diagram. 


  • 1. The input signal is digitised by a digital oscilloscope, making all subsequent signals digital.
  • 2. Storage takes place in electronic digital memory, which is shown on a traditional CRT. 
  • 3. Fig. shows a block diagram of a basic digital storage oscilloscope. 
  • 4. The input signal is converted to digital form and stored in memory. It can be analysed in this state to provide a range of various types of information. 
  • 5. The data from memory is reconverted into analogue form in order to view the display on the CRT.
digital storage oscilloscope with block diagram
  • 6. A sample of the input waveform is talced at regular intervals to digitize it.
  • 7. According to sampling theory, the sampling rate must be at least twice as rapid as the input signal’s maximum frequency in order to prevent information loss. Aliasing will happen as a result if this is not done, as demonstrated in Fig.
  • 8. The digitiser, an analogue to digital converter, must have a quick conversion rate due to the requirement for a high sampling rate.· 
  • 9. Costly flash analogue to digital converters are typically needed for this, and their resolution degrades as sampling rates rise.
  • 10. This is the reason why an analogue to digital converter typically imposes a limit on the bandwidth and resolution of a digital oscilloscope. 

Q6. Give the comparison of DSO with analog oscilloscope . 


S.No. Analog storage oscilloscope Digital storage oscilloscope 
1.Its writing speed and bandwidth are higher. Its writing speed and bandwidth are lower.
2.CRT used in it, is costlier.CRT used in it, is cheaper. 
3.Capability of storage time is limited. Capability of storage time is infinite. 
4.Time base signal in analog oscilloscope is generated by ramp circuit. ‘Time base signal in digital storage oscilloscope is generated by a crystal clock.  
5.It cannot work in look back mode.  It can work in look back mode. 
6.Accuracy is less. Accuracy is high.  
7.Analog oscilloscope collects data after it is has been triggered. It has slower writing and bandwidth. Data collection by DSO is constant, and trigger indicates when to stop.  
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