# Fluid Mechanics & Fluid Machines | AKTU Syllabus

Providing the Fluid Mechanics & Fluid Machines AKTU syllabus also providing the Important question with solution. Hope you enjoy that Blog and Be ready for your upcoming Exam.

## UNIT-1 : FLUID & BERNOULLI’S EQUATION

• Definition of fluid
• Newton’s law of viscosity
• Units and dimensions-Properties of fluids
• mass density
• specific volume
• specific gravity
• viscosity
• compressibility and surface tension
• Incompressible flow
• Bernoulli’s equation and its applications – Pitot tube
• orifice meter
• venturi meter and bend meter
• notches and weirs
• momentum equation and its application to pipe bends.

## UNIT-2 : FLUID FLOW & CONTINUITY EQUATION

• Continuum & free molecular flows.
• Steady and unsteady,
• uniform and non-uniform,
• laminar and turbulent flows,
• rotational and irrotational flows,
• compressible and incompressible flows,
• subsonic, sonic and supersonic flows,
• sub-critical, critical and supercritical flows,
• one, two- and threedimensional flows,
• streamlines, continuity equation for 3D and 1D flows,
• circulation, stream function and velocity potential.
• Buckingham’s Pi theorem,
• important dimensionless numbers and their significance.

## UNIT-3: FLOW THROUGH PIPES

• Equation of motion for laminar flow through pipes,
• turbulent flow,
• isotropic,
• homogenous turbulence,
• scale and intensity of turbulence,
• measurement of turbulence,
• eddy viscosity,
• resistance to flow,
• minor losses,
• pipe in series and parallel,
• power transmission through a pipe,
• siphon, water hammer, three reservoir problems and pipe networks.
• Boundary layer thickness,
• boundary layer over a flat plate,
• laminar boundary layer,
• application of momentum equation,
• turbulent boundary layer,
• laminar sublayer,
• separation and its control,
• Drag and lift, drag on a sphere,
• a two-dimensional cylinder, and an aero foil, Magnus effect.

## UNIT-4: IMPACT OF JET

• Introduction to hydrodynamic thrust of jet on a fixed and moving surface,
• Classification of turbines,
• Impulse turbines,
• Constructional details,
• Velocity triangles, Power and efficiency calculations,
• Governing of Pelton wheel.
• Francis and Kaplan turbines,
• Constructional details,
• Velocity triangles, Power and efficiency Principles of similarity,
• Unit and specific speed, Performance characteristics, Selection of water turbines.

## UNIT-5: CENTRIFUGAL & RECIPROCATING PUMPS

• Classifications of centrifugal pumps,
• Vector diagram,
• Work done by impellor,
• Efficiencies of centrifugal pumps,
• Specific speed, Cavitation & separation,
• Performance characteristics.
• Reciprocating pump theory, Slip, Indicator diagram,
• Effect of acceleration, air vessels, Comparison of centrifugal and reciprocating pumps,
• Performance characteristics.