# Syllabus Thermodynamics Mechanical Engineering – 2023 latest

Here we are discussing for Syllabus of Thermodynamics in Mechanical Engineering AKTU Btech Subject. Hope this Syllabus will help you in your upcomming exams.

## UNIT – 1: INTRODUCTION

• Introduction- Basic Concepts: System,
• Control Volume,
• Surrounding,
• Boundaries,
• Universe,
• Types of Systems,
• Macroscopic and Microscopic viewpoints,
• Concept of Continuum,
• Thermodynamic Equilibrium,
• State, Property, Process,
• Exact & Inexact Differentials,
• Cycle Reversibility Quasi – static Process,
• Irreversible Process,
• Causes of Irreversibility Energy and its forms,
• Work and heat (sign convention),
• Gas laws,
• Ideal gas,
• Real gas,
• Law of corresponding states,
• Dalton’s law,
• Amagat’s law,
• Property of mixture of gases.
• Zeroth law of thermodynamics:
• Concept of Temperature and its’ measurement,
• Temperature scales.
• First law of thermodynamics: Thermodynamic definition of work,
• Displacement work and flow work,
• Displacement work for various non flow processes,
• Joules experiment,
• First law analysis for closed system (non flow processes),
• Internal energy and enthalpy.
• Limitations of first law of thermodynamics,
• PMM-1. Steady flow systems and their analysis,
• Steady flow energy equation, Boilers, Condensers, Turbine,
• Throttling process, Pumps etc.
• Analysis of unsteady processes such as filling and evacuation of vessels with and without heat transfer.

## UNIT – 2 : SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

• Thermal reservoirs,
• Energy conversion,
• Heatengines, Efficiency,
• Reversed heat engine, Heat pump, Refrigerator,
• Coefficient of Performance,
• Kelvin Planck and Clausius statementof second law of thermodynamics,
• Equivalence of the two statements.
• Reversible and irreversible processes,
• Carnot cycle and Camot engine,
• Carnot theorem and it’s corollaries,
• Thermodynamic Temperature Scale,
• PMM-II.
• Entropy: Clausius inequality,
• Concept of Entropy, Entropy change of pure substance in different thermodynamic processes, Tds equation, Principle of entropy increase,
• T-s diagram, Statement of the third law of thermodynamics.

## UNIT – 3: AVAILABILITY & IRREVERSIBILITY

• Availability and Irreversibility: Available and unavailable energy, Availability and Irreversibility, Second law efficiency, Helmholtz & Gibb’s function.
• Thermodynamic relations: Conditions for exact differentials. Maxwell relations, Clapeyron equation, Joule- Thompson coefficient and Inversion curve. Coefficient of volume expansion, Adiabatic and Isothermal compressibility.

## UNIT – 4 : STEAM & RANKINE CYCLE

• Pure substance,
• Property of Pure Substance (steam),
• Triple point, Critical point,
• Saturation states, Sub-cooled liquid state,
• Superheated vapour state, Phase transformation process of water,
• Graphical representation of pressure,
• volume and temperature, P-T, P-V and P-h diagrams,
• I-S and H-S diagrams, use of property diagram,
• Steam-Tables &Mollier chart,
• Dryness factor and it’s measurement,
• processes involving steam in closed and open systems.
• Simple Rankine cycle.
• Psychometric terms and their definitions,
• Psychometric chart,
• Different Psychometric processes and their representation on Psychometric chart.

## UNIT – 5 : REFRIGERATION CYCLES

• Reversed Carnot Cycle for gas and vapour.
• Refrigeration capacity,
• unit of refrigeration.
• Air Refrigeration cycles;
• Reversed Brayton Cycle and Bell Coleman Cycle.
• Vapour compression refrigeration cycle;
• simple saturated cycle and actual vapour compression refrigeration cycle.
• Analysis of cycles, effect of superheating, sub-cooling and change in evaporator and condenser pressure on performance of vapour compression refrigeration cycle.
• Refrigerants; their classification and desirable properties.
• Vapour absorption refrigeration system.