**Table Of Contents**

Discover **AKTU Quantum Book** Short Question Notes on **Computer Graphics** for **B.Tech**. Investigate rendering, modelling, and animation concepts to produce interactive digital content and immersive visual experiences.

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## Unit-I: Introduction and Line Generation (Short Question)

**Q1. Define computer graphics. **

**Ans. **The art of drawing graphics using computer programming is known as computer graphics.

**Q2. What are the advantages of computer graphics? **

**Ans. Advantages of computer graphics:**

- 1. One of the most natural ways to communicate with a computer is through a high-quality graphical display on a personal computer.
- 2. It offers resources for creating both abstract and synthetic objects in addition to concrete, real-world objects.
- 3. Update dynamics is another feature offered by computer graphics.

**Q3. Define aspect ratio and types of retracing? **

**Ans. Aspect ratio:** The connection between an image’s width and height is described by the characteristic known as the aspect ratio.

**Types of retracing : **There are two types of retracing:

- 1. Vertical retracing
- 2. Horizontal retracing

**Q4. What are the applications of computer graphics ? **

** OR**

**Explain the applications of computer graphics. **

**Ans. Applications of computer graphics:**

- 1. User interfaces
- 2. Plotting of graphics and chart
- 3. Office automation and desktop publishing
- 4. Simulation and animation
- 5. Art and commerce

**Q5. What is the role of frame buffer is raster method ?**

** OR**

**Explain the role of pixel and frame buffer in graphics devices. **

**Ans. Role of pixel:** The smallest object or colour spot that may be displayed or addressed on a monitor is called a “pixel.” They stand in for the tiniest manipulable component of a picture displayed on the screen.

**Role of frame buffer:** The refresh buffer, also known as the frame buffer, is where images’ definitions are kept in memory. For each screen point, it stores the collection of intensity values.

**Q6. Distinguish between pixel ratio and aspect ratio. **

**Ans. **

S. No. | Pixel ratio | Aspect ratio |

1. | A single pixel’s aspect ratio and height ratio. | The aspect ratio is the proportion of an image’s width to height. |

**Q7. What do you understand by the raster scan display ? **

** OR**

**Write a short note on random scan display.**

**Ans. Random scan display:** The beam is moved in random scan display between the graphics primitive’s endpoints.

**Raster scan display:** On the CRT screen, images are shown via a technique called raster scan display. In order to move the beam in a pattern across the screen, horizontal and vertical deflection signals are generated in this.

**Q8. What is the difference between raster and random scan ?**

**Ans. **

S. No. | Raster scan display | Random scan display |

1. | It is highly suited for the realistic presentation of scenes with fine colour and shading patterns. | It is not capable of displaying realistic shaded scenes because it is meant for line drawing applications. |

2. | Raster scan have low resolution than random system. | Random scan have higher resolution than raster system. |

3. | Picture definition is stored in form of pixel intensity value. | Picture definition is stored in form of line drawing algorithm. |

**Q9. What do you understand by the video controller?**

**Ans. **An interactive raster scan system’s video controller is one of its parts. Each pixel’s operation and intensity data are controlled by it from the frame buffer, and they are then displayed on the screen.

**Q10. What are points and lines ? **

**Ans. **A position or a plane is a point. It is completely empty, meaning it has no width, length, or depth. A dot indicates a point.

A line is described as a collection of points that stretches in both directions indefinitely. It just has one dimension length.

**Q11. What are the criteria that should be satisfied by a good line drawing algorithm ? **

**Ans. Criteria for good line drawing algorithm are:**

- 1. Lanes should appear straight.
- 2. Lines should terminate accurately.
- 3. Lines should have constant density.
- 4. Lines should be drawn rapidly.

**Q12. Give the advantages of DDA algorithm. **

**Ans. Advantages of DDA algorithm :**

- 1. It is the simplest algorithm and doesn’t need special implementation knowledge.
- 2. It is a quicker way to determine the position of each pixel.

**Q13. What are the advantages of B-spline curve over Bezier curve ?**

**Ans. Advantages of B-spline curve over Bezier curve: **

- 1. It is possible to adjust the degree of the B-spline polynomial irrespective of the number of control points.
- 2. A spline curve or surface’s shape can be locally modified using a B-spline.

**Q14. What are flat panel display devices ?**

**Ans. **A flat panel display is a type of display that is intended to lessen the depth of a CRT display, which is a result of the tube’s length.

**Q15. Describe the categories of flat panel displays.**

**Ans. Categories of flat panel display: **

**1. Emissive displays:**These are the machinery used to transform electrical energy into light. Examples include thin films and plasma displays.**2. Non-emissive displays:**They transform sunshine or light from other sources into graphic patterns using optical phenomena. Example: Liquid Crystal Device (LCD).

**Q16. Write the Bresenham’s algorithm of a line.**

**Ans. Bresenham’s line drawing algorithm:**

**Q17. What is the persistence of phosphor?**

**Ans. **The duration it takes for the light projected from the screen to dim to one-tenth of its initial intensity is known as persistence. Animation benefits from phosphors with low persistence, whereas complex static images benefit from phosphors with high persistence.

**Q18. What is the difference between computer graphics and image processing ? **

**Ans. **In contrast to computer graphics, which is a graphical object-oriented framework that can be 1-, 2-, 3-, or 4-dimensional, image processing is a process where a 2-dimensional plane of pixels are processed where each pixel has a domain of colours (animation).

## Unit-II: Transformation (Short Question)

**Q1. Define transformation. **

**Ans. **Transformation, which is used to position, reshape, and animate objects, lights, and the virtual camera, is the essential capacity to imitate the manipulation of objects in space.

**Q2. Explain 2 D translation with diagrams. **

**Ans. Translation:**

a. An object’s position can be changed by translating it in a straight line from one coordinate location to another.

b. We can translate a two dimensional point by adding translation distances t_{x} and t_{y} to the original coordinate position (x, y) to move the point to a new position (x’, y’), as shown in the Fig.

x’ = x + t_{x} (1)

y’ = y + t_{y } (2)_{ }

c. The translation distance pair (t_{x}, t_{y}) is called translation vector

d Translation equation (1) and (2) can be represented in the form of matrix as

**Q3. List out the basic operations performed by geometric transformation. **

** OR**

**Explain other transformation that can be applied on 2D objects. **

**Ans. Basic operations performed by geometric transformation are:**

- 1. Translation
- 2. Rotation
- 3. Scaling

**Q4. What do you understand by reflection ?**

**Ans. ** A change that creates an object’s mirror image is called a reflection.

**Q5. What do you mean by shearing ?**

**Ans. **Shearing is a transformation that tilts (or leans) an object’s shape in either a vertical or horizontal direction.

**Q6. Define homogeneous coordinates.**

**Ans. **Homogeneous coordinates consists of appending a 1 to the x andy coordinates.

In order to translate as a matrix multiplication operation, we use 3 x 3 matrices and transform the points to become 3 x 1 matrices.

**Q7. Define windowing and when it is used. **

**Ans. **Coordinate transformation from one location to another is called windowing. It is utilised during scaling transformations.

**Q8. Define clipping. **

**Ans. **Clipping an object with a clip is the process. The item could be a point, a region, a line, or even text. Each component of the image is split into its visible and unseen parts throughout this procedure.

**Q9. What is line clipping ?**

**Ans. **A technique to cut a specific line is line clipping. It cuts off a section of the line outside the window. If both of a line’s end points are inside the window, the entire line is visible.

**Q10. Define point clipping. **

**Ans. **Points are said to be interior to the clipping window if,

The equal sign denotes the inclusion of the points along the window’s edge inside the window.

**Q11. What does the word “Filling Polygon” mean ?**

**Ans. ** “Filling Polygon is the process of colouring in a fixed area or region. Following are various algorithms used to fill the area:

1. Boundary-fill algorithm 2. Flood-fill algorithm

3. Scanline algorithm

**Q12. Write a note on text clipping. **

**Ans. **Text clipping is a technique where a character outside of a window boundary or a portion of a character outside the window boundary is clipped.

**Q13. Write a note on curve clipping.**

** OR**

**Define curve clipping and text clipping ****Ans. Text clipping: **Text clipping is a technique where either a character inside a window boundary or a character outside one is clipped.

**Curve clipping:** In contrast to objects with linear bounds, curve clipping involves non-linear equations and requires more intricate processing. To check whether an object’s bounding rectangle and a rectangular chip window overlap, utilize the bounding rectangle for a circle or other curved object.

**Q14. Give window to viewport transformation matrix. **

**Ans. **

**Q15. List out the types of polygon clipping algorithm. **

**Ans. Types of polygon clipping algorithm are :**

- 1. Sutherland-Hodgeman polygon clipping
- 2. Weiler-Atherton polygon clipping
- 3. Curve clipping

**Q16. How many clippers are used by Sutherland Hodgeman for polygon clipping? **

**Ans. **Four clippers are used by Sutherland Hodgeman for polygon clipping.

**Q17. What is the difference between generation of character by stroke and bitmap method ? **

**Ans. **

S. No. | Stroke method | Bitmap method |

1. | The stroke approach is based on how text is naturally written by humans. This approach involves drawing the graph line by line. | The dot-matrix approach, often known as the bitmap method, uses an array of bits to create characters. |

2. | This method uses small line segments to generate a character. | This method uses dots to generate a character. |

## Unit-III: Three Dimensional (Short Question)

**Q1. What do you mean by geometric primitives? **

**Ans.** The fundamental geometrical shapes that go into creating computer-generated scenes and the finished visuals are known as geometric primitives.

**Q2. What do you mean by 3-D geometry ? **

**Ans. **3-D geometry is a branch of geometry that deals with the mathematical representation of 3-D shapes using the x, y, and z-coordinates.

**Q3. Name the commonly used 3D geometric primitives. **

**Ans. Commonly used 3D geometric primitives are:**

- 1. Points
- 2. Line
- 3. Line segments Planes
- 5. Circles
- 6. Ellipses
- 7. Triangles

**Q4. Give the matrix representation of rotation about x, y and z coordinate axis in 3D transformation. **

** OR**

**Write the rotation matrix about x, y and z-axis in 3D. **

**Ans. **

**Q5. How can we determine the projected view of an object ?**

**Ans. **Calculating the point where the projection lines and view plane connect yields the object’s projected view.

**Q6. What do you mean by projection ?**

**Ans. **A three-dimensional (3D) area is transformed into a two-dimensional (2D) area through projection.

**Q7. List out the types of projections. **

**Ans. Types of projection are:**

- 1. Perspective projection
- 2. Parallel projection

**Q8. Discuss the classification of parallel projection. **

**Ans. Parallel projections are classified into two ways:**

**1. Orthographic:**ln this, projections are perpendicular to view plane.**2 Oblique:**In this, projections are not perpendicular to view plane.

**Q9. Give the common subcategories of orthographic projection. **

**Ans. Subcategories of orthographic projection are:**

1. Isometric 2. Diametric 3. Trimetric

**Q10. Give the common subcategories of oblique projection. **

**Ans. Subcategories of oblique projection are:**

1. Cabinet 2. Cavalier

**Q11. Define perspective projection. **

**Ans. **In perspective projection, the view plane’s object locations are changed along lines that converge at a project reference point.

**Q13. Write down the anomalies of perspective projection. **

**Ans. Anomalies of perspective projection are:**

- 1. Perspective foreshortening
- 2. Vanishing point
- 3. View confusion
- 4. Topological distortion

**Q14. Write down the types of perspective projection. **

**Ans. Types of perspective projection are :**

- 1. One-point perspective projection
- 2. Two-point perspective projection
- 3. Three-point perspective projection

**Q15. Explain 3D clipping. **

**Ans. **Extensions of two-dimensional clipping techniques can be used to create three-dimensional clipping. In 3D clipping, we align the objects with the view volume’s boundary planes.

**Q16. Define vanishing point. **

**Ans. ** An abstract location on the picture plane known as a vanishing point is where a group of parallel lines in 3D space appear to converge in 2D projections (or drawings).

**Q17. What is tilting transformation ? Does the order of performing the rotation matter ?**

**Ans. **Tilting is a transformation. where the object first rotate about X-axis and then abouty-axas. We can find the required transformation by composing two rotation matrices, i.e.,

## Unit-IV: Curves and Surfaces (Short Question)

**Q1. Define quadric surface. ****Ans. **A generalization of conic sections is the quadric surface. In a (D + 1) dimensional space, it is a hypersurface of dimension D.

**Q2. Name the various types of quadric surfaces. **

**Ans. Various types of quadric surface are:**

- 1. Ellipsoid
- 2. Sphere
- 3. Torus
- 4. Blobby objects

**Q3. Define blobby objects. **

**Ans. **Blobby objects don’t keep their shapes consistently and change their surface properties during specific motions or when they come into contact with other things.

**Q4. Define blobby objects and types of coherence. **

**Ans. Blobby objects: **Blobby objects don’t keep their shapes consistently and change their surface properties during specific motions or when they come into contact with other things.

**Types of coherence: **There are two type of coherence:

- 1. Spatial coherence
- 2. Temporal coherence

**Q5. Define spline curves. **

**Ans. **A flexible strip called a spline curve is used to create a smooth curve via a predetermined set of points. Any composite curve with a polynomial section that satisfies certain continuity requirements is known as a spline curve.

**Q6. What is B-spline ?**

**Ans. **A base spline function with a number of control points is known as a B-spline.

**Q7. How many parametric continuity conditions are in a spline representation ? **

**Ans. Parametric continuity conditions in a spline representation are:**

- 1. Zero-order parametric continuity
- 2. First-order parametric continuity
- 3. Second-order parametric continuity

**Q8. Write down the properties of Bezier curves. **

** OR**

** List the properties of Bezier Curves. **

**Ans. Properties of Bezier curves are:**

- 1. It always moves past the initial and final points.
- 2. It is contained by the control points’ convex hull.
- 3. All Bezier blending functions are added up to one.

**Q9. Write the properties of B-spline curves.**

**Ans. Properties of B-spline curves are:**

- 1. The polynomial curve has degree d – 1 and C
^{d-2}continuity over the range of 4. - 2. For n + 1 control points, the curve is described with n + 1 blending functions.

**Q10. What are the advantages of B-spline curve over Bezier curve? **

** OR**

**Explain advantages of B-Spline curve over Bezier curve. **

**Ans. Advantages of B-spline curve over Bezier curve: **

- 1. It is possible to adjust the degree of the B-spline polynomial irrespective of the number of control points.
- 2. A spline curve or surface’s shape can be locally modified using a B-spline.

**Q11. What is interpolation ? **

**Ans. **In order to create new data points that fall within the range of a discrete set of existing data points, interpolation is a technique.

## Unit-V: Hidden Lines and Surfaces (Short Question)

**Q1. What is determined by the hidden line or hidden surface ?**

**Ans. **The lines, edges, surfaces, or volumes that are visible or invisible to an observer placed at a particular location in space are determined by hidden lines or hidden surfaces.

**Q2. Mention the two approaches for hidden surface elimination or visible surface detection.**

**Ans. Two approaches for hidden surface elimination are: **

- 1. Object space method
- 2. Image space method

**Q3. Give the advantages of z-buffer algorithm.**

**Ans. Advantages of z-buffer algorithm are: **

- 1. It is simple to use
- 2. To solve the speed issue, it can be implemented in hardware.
- 3. Images can have a lot of polygons in total.

**Q4. What are the various back-face detection algorithms ?**

**Ans. Various back-face detection algorithms are: **

- 1. Back-face detection methods
- 2. Depth buffer method
- 3. A-buffer method
- 4. Scan line method

**Q5. Mention the name of the basic illumination models.**

** OR**

**Explain basic illumination models.**

**Ans. Basic illumination models are: **

- 1. Ambient light
- 2. Diffuse reflection
- 3. Specular reflection
- 4. Phong model
- 5. Combined approach
- 6. Warn model
- 7. Intensity attenuation

**Q6. Describe diffuse illumination. **

**Ans. **Light that does not originate from one specific source but rather from all directions might illuminate an object. Diffuse lighting is the term used when such illumination is consistent from all angles.

**Q7. What do you understand by coefficient of reflection?**

**Ans. **The ratio of light reflected from a surface to all light entering that surface is known as the coefficient of reflection.

**Q8. Write a note on specular reflection. **

** OR**

**What is the specular reflection ? **

**Ans. **The phenomenon of incident light being reflected in a concentrated area at the specular reflection angle is known as specular reflection.

**Q9. Give the combine diffuse and specular reflection from any point on the illuminated surface for a single point light Source. **

**Ans. **

**Q10. On which factor the coefficient of transparency depends ?**

**Ans. **The thickness of the object affects the coefficient of transparency because the amount of light that may pass through it increases exponentially on its thickness.

**Q11. Define shadows. **

**Ans. ** A shadow is something that is obscured from the source of light. Hidden surface techniques can be used to identify the locations where a light source casts shadows.

**Q12. What do you understand by mach band effect and transparency ?**

**Ans. Mach band effect:** The surface may show streaks of bright or dark intensity as a result of the linear intensity interpolation. Mach bands are used to describe these streaks of intense or dark intensity. By slicing the surface into many little polygons, the mach band effect can be lessened.

**Transparency:**

- 1. Light is transmitted and reflected from a transparent surface.
- 2. The amount of transparency of the surface affects the relative contribution of the transmitted light.
- 3. Intensity formula must be changed in order to account for contributions from light traveling through transparent surfaces.
- 4. The surfaces of a transparent object can exhibit both diffuse and specular transmission.
- 5. By taking into account light refraction, realistic transparency effects are reproduced.

**Q13. What is ambient light ? **

**Ans. **A broad amount of lighting that is not directly from a light source is referred to as ambient light.

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