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Aktu Solid Waste Management KCE-074 Btech Short Question, Notes Pdf

Explore the B.Tech AKTU Quantum Book Short Question Notes on Solid Waste Management. Learn about waste collection and disposal, as well as sustainable waste reduction and management practises.

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Unit-I: Introduction of Solid Waste Management (Short Question)

Q1. Define the solid waste. 

Ans. The undesirable or worthless solid materials generated by human activities in residential, industrial, or commercial sectors are referred to as solid waste. 

Q2. What are the fundamental elements of solid waste management ?

Ans. Following are the six functional elements :  

  • i. Waste generation
  • ii. Waste handling and sorting, storage, and processing at the source. 
  • iii. Collection. 
  • v. Sorting, processing and transformation. 
  • v. Transfer and transport. 
  • vi. Disposal. 

Q3. Write down the stages in waste management. 
Ans. Following are the stages of solid waste: 

  • i. Generation.  
  • ii. Storage. 
  • iii. Collection. 
  • iv. Disposal. 

Q4. What are the effects of solid waste ? 

Ans. Following are the effects of solid waste :

  • i. Environmental effect. 
  • ii. Health effect. 
  • iii. Social effect. 
  • iv. Economic effects. 

Q5. Explain impacts of solid waste on human health and ecology. 

Ans. Health Effects: The impacts on man, the Flora and Fauna of the environment are numerous, ranging from convulsions to dermatitis, nose/throat irritation, aplastic anaemia, skin burns, chest pains, blood disorders, stomach aches, vomiting diarrhoea, lung cancer, and death. 

Environmental Effects: There is a vast range of environmental challenges that involve solid waste management worldwide, and there is hazardous (pollution to the atmosphere, soil, and water that threatens an area’s entire ecosystem).  

Q6. What are the types of solid waste ? 

Ans. Following are the types of solid waste : 

  • i. Industrial. 
  • ii. Institutional. 
  • iii. Construction and demolition. 
  • iv. Municipal services. 

Q7. What are the characteristics of solid waste ?

Ans.  Following are the characteristics of solid wastes : 

  • i. Corrosive: These are wastes that include acids or bases that are capable of corroding metal containers, e.g., tanks. 
  • ii. Ignitability: This is waste that can create fires under certain condition, e.g., waste oils and solvents. 
  • iii. Reactive: These are unstable in nature, they cause explosions, toxic fumes when heated.
  • iv. Toxicity: Waste which are harmful or fatal when ingested or absorb.  

Q8. Write down the treatment methods of solid waste ? 

Ans. Following are the treatments methods of solid waste : 

  • i. Incineration. 
  • ii. Compaction. 
  • iii. Pyrolysis. 
  • iv. Gasification. 
  • v. Composting. 

Q9. What are the major sources of municipal solid waste ? 

Ans. Municipal Solid Waste Sources: These are solid wastes generated at home, offices, stores, schools, hospitals, and hotels, among other places. Domestic solid wastes are typically disposed of in municipal garbage cans or on roadside open waste sites. 

Q10. Write down the various types of composting. 

Ans. Following are the various types of the composting of solid waste : 

  • i. Aerobic composting. 
  • ii. Anaerobic composting. 
  • iii. Vermi-composting. 

Q11. Define incineration process. 

Ans. The screens are burned in incinerators similar to those used to burn garbage. Incineration is the process of burning. 

Q12. What are the causes of increase of solid waste ?

Ans. Following are the causes of increase of solid waste : 

  • i. Population growth. 
  • ii. Increase in industrials manufacturing.
  • iii. Urbanization. 
  • iv. Modernization. 

Q13. What are the effects of solid waste on economic values ?

Ans. Following are the effects of solid waste on economic values : 

  • 1. Increased transportation cost. 
  • 2. Increased health cost. 
  • 3. Repair of sewer lines. 
  • 4. Decline in crop production. 

Q14. What are the objectives of solid waste management ? 

Ans. Following are the objectives of solid waste management : 

  • i. Reducing the quantity of toxic and hazardous chemicals and materials acquired, used, or disposed off by the agency.
  • ii. Increasing diversion of solid waste as required. 
  • iii. Maintaining waste recycling programs. 
  • iv. To provide efficient and economical way of reuse of collections through recycling. 
  • v. To provide source for energy generation. 

Q15. Write down the different computing methods for generation rate of solid waste.  

Ans. Solid waste generation rate is determined by using some of the following methods: 

  • i. Load-count analysis. 
  • ii. Weight-volume analysis. 
  • iii. Material balance analysis. 

Q16. What are the methods of solid waste disposal?

Ans. Following are the methods of solid waste disposal : 

  • i. Land filling. 
  • ii. Incineration. 
  • iii. Pulverization. 
  • iv. Composting.
  • v. Pyrolysis. 
  • vi. Disposal into sea. 

Unit-II: Transportation of Solid Waste (Short Question)

Q1. Define the transportation of solid waste. 

Ans. Waste management may carry your solid garbage in a variety of ways, including classic front-end and roll-off containers, as well as compactors and home pickup service. We also provide in-house, fully integrated transportation management to coordinate all of your waste disposal transportation requirements. 

Q2. Write down the vehicle name which used in transportation of solid waste. 

Ans. Following are the vehicles used to transport solid waste : 

  • i. Auto rickshaw.  
  • ii. Bulldozer. 
  • iii. Mini-lorry. 
  • iv. Non-tipper lorry. 
  • v. Poclain. 
  • vi. Tipper lorry. 
  • vii. Tractor-trailer. 
  • viii. Tractor dozer with backhoe. 
  • ix. Front and loader with backhoe. 
  • x. Twin-bin dumper placer. 

Q3. What is the dumper placer?

Ans. The dumper placer is a very adaptable piece of equipment that combines the benefits of a tipper with a self-loading crane, making it an extremely useful unit. 

The dumper placer can pick, dump, and replace containers/loads, minimising loading time and enhancing production. The parallel container lift offers complete safety and prevents spillage.  

Q4. What are the applications of dumper placer ? 

Ans. Following are the applications of dumper placer: 

  • i. Handling of city refuse and garbage. 
  • ii. Handling of toxic liquids/sludge and water tankers. 
  • iii. Handling of building rubble, construction materials. 
  • iv. Handling of pipes, wooden logs and dead animals.

Q5. What is the bulk refuse carrier? 

Ans. Bulky rubbish, often known as bulky refuse, is a waste management word that refers to waste kinds that are too large to be accepted by ordinary waste collection. In many nations, it is frequently collected from the area’s streets or pavements. Many places offer this service free of charge, but others require a fee. 

Q6. What is the principle of separation of solid waste? 

Ans. The principle of separation states that different forms of trash should not be mixed; for example, depositing solid garbage in areas where water bodies exist (rivers, sewage systems, etc.) is not permitted. Mixing waste types would simply complicate treatment and boost overall expenses (for example, solids must be removed from a stormwater pipe before discharge into a river). 

Q7. What are the advantages of separator system ?

Ans. Following are the advantages of separator system:

  • i. Smaller wastewater treatment works. 
  • ii. Stormwater pumped only if necessary. 
  • iii. Wastewater and storm sewers may follow own optimum line and depth (for example, stormwater to nearby outfall). 
  • iv. Wastewater sewer small and greater velocities maintained at low flows. 
  • v. Less variation in flow and strength of wastewater.    

Q8. What are the disadvantages of separator system ? 

Ans. Following are the disadvantages of separator system : 

  • i. Extra cost of two pipes. 
  • ii. Additional space occupied in narrow streets in built-up areas. 
  • iii. More house drains, with risk of wrong connections. 
  • iv. No flushing of deposited wastewater solids by stormwater. 
  • v. No treatment of stormwater. 

Q9. Write short note on solid waste by water transport.  

Ans. Waterway transport capacity is a multiple of roadway transport capacity. Waste can be loaded loose in barges or with containers on container ships at transfer sites. Without another transfer station, transportation to the final target site is frequently impossible. As a result, canal transportation is uncommon.  

Q10. What do you mean by waste transport by rail ? 

Ans. Rail transport is generally used for compacted waste, which is transported in compactor containers, rotary drum compactors, or open-top rail carriages for uncompacted waste. The independence of the road network from weather and discharge is advantageous. If no railway siding is available at transfer stations or disposal facilities, more transfers are required, resulting in greater transportation costs. 

Q11. What do you mean by size reduction of solid waste?

Ans. Size reduction is a common, multipurpose activity in the food processing industry. Milling, crushing, chopping, and cutting are all methods of reducing the size of substances. 

Q12. Define the screening of solid waste. 

Ans. It is used to separate mixtures of different sizes into two or more size fractions using one or more screening surfaces such as vibrating screens, rotary screens, disc screens, and so on. 

Q13. Describe the pelletization of solid waste. 

Ans. Pelletization of municipal solid waste entails sorting, crushing, mixing high- and low-heat value organic waste material, and hardening it to generate fuel pellets or briquettes, also known as refuse derived fuel (RDF).

Q14. What are the main considerations in the optimizations of routes for transportation of MSW ? 

Ans. Following are the consideration in optimization of route for transportation of MSW: 

  • i. Routes should not overlap, but should be compact and continuous. 
  • ii. The starting point should be as close to the garage as possible. 
  • iii. Congested areas i.e., heavily travelled streets, should not be collected during rush hours. 
  • iv. Clockwise turn around blocks should be used, wherever possible. 

Unit-III: Landfilling of Solid Waste (Short Question)

Q1. What do you mean by landfills of solid waste ?

Ans. A landfill is a man-made way of disposing of solid and hazardous waste on land. The process of depositing solid waste in a landfill is referred to as landfilling. Monofills are landfills for individual waste ingredients such as combustion ash, asbestos, and other similar wastes. 

Q2. What are the types of landfills ?  

Ans. Following are the types of landfills : 

  • i. Sanitary landfills. 
  • ii. Secured landfills. 
  • iii. Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. 
  • iv. Construction and demolition waste landfills. 
  • v. Industrial waste landfills. 

Q3. Define sanitary landfill and secured landfill. 

Ans. Sanitary Landfills: Sanitary landfills are locations where garbage is segregated from the environment until it is safe to be disposed of. It is regarded fully deteriorated physiologically, chemically, and physically. 

Secured Landfills: A guarded landfill is a properly designed region where waste goods are deposited. A secured landfill is often a hole in the earth, however it can also be erected above ground. If the depression is in the ground, it must have a 3 metre (10 foot) gap between the landfill’s bottom and the underlying bedrock or groundwater table. 

Q4. Give two advantages of landfilling of solid waste.  

Ans. Following are the two advantages of landfilling of solid wastes : 

  • i. Its purpose is to improve and restore degraded land. 
  • ii. It raises the site’s ground elevation or surface grade. Completion of landfills has resulted in municipal parks, playgrounds, golf courses, and community land use initiatives. 

Q5. Give two disadvantages of landfill.

Ans. Following are the two disadvantages of landfilling of solid wastes: 

  • i. Difficult to find suitable site within economically feasible distance. 
  • ii. It is not possible to build a completely safe and secured solid waste landfill.  

Q6. What are the methods of landfilling of solid waste ?

Ans. Following are the three methods of landfilling of solid wastes : 

  • i. Excavated cell / Trench method. 
  • ii. Area method. 
  • iii. Canyon / depression method. 

Q7. Give the two characteristics of landfills.  

Ans. Following are the two characteristics of landfills : 

  • i. The waste material is spread out and compacted with appropriate heavy machinery. 
  • ii. The waste is covered each day with a layer of compacted soil. 

Q8. What do you understand by engineered landfill ? 

Ans. Engineered Landfill: A landfill is a man-made trench that is filled, compacted, and covered with layers of solid garbage for final disposal. It is lined at the bottom to protect groundwater. A lined bottom, a leachate collection and treatment system, groundwater monitoring, gas extraction, and a cap system are all features of engineered landfills.  

Q9. Give the two advantages of engineered landfill. 

Ans. Following are the two advantages of engineered landfills: 

  • i. Effective disposal due to well managed. 
  • ii. Energy production and fast degradation due to designed as a bioreactor landfill. 

Q10. Give the two disadvantages of engineered landfills.  

Ans. Following are the two disadvantages of engineered landfill: 

  • i. More costly due for high-tech landfill. 
  • ii. Need expert design as well as skilled operators and a proper management to guarantee their functionality.  

Q11. Give the two factors to be considered in the design and operation of a landfill. 

Ans. Following are the two factors to be considered in the design and operation of a landfill: 

  • i. Access to the site. 
  • ii. Cell design and construction. 

Q12. What are the main compositions of landfill gas? 

Ans. Following are the main composition of landfill gas:

Landfill Gas ComponentComposition (by volume)
Methane (CH4)35-55%
Carbon dioxide (CO230-44 % 
Nitrogen (N25-25%  
Oxygen (O2)  0-6%
Water vapour Saturated

Q13. What are the two factors affecting landfill gas production ? 

Ans. Following are the two factors affecting landfill gas production : 

  • i. Waste composition. 
  • ii. Age of refuse. 

Q14. What do you mean by the landfill leachate ? 

Ans. Landfill leachate is a liquid that exists in a landfill as part of the garbage. This is typically caused by precipitation entering the landfill, but it can also be caused by the natural decomposition of organic material, as well as other liquids and chemicals that have been disposed. 

Q15. Give the name of four phases for the generation of landfill gases. 

Ans. Following are the four phases for the generation of landfill : 

  • i. Initial adjustment phase (Phase-I).  
  • ii. Transition phase (Phase-II). 
  • iii. Acid formation phase (Phase-III). 
  • iv. Methane phase (Phase-IV). 
  • v. Maturation phase of gases and leachate (Phase-IV). 

Q16. What are the factors influencing acid formation phase in landfills ?  

Ans. Factors Influencing Acid Formation Phase in Landfills: Acid production phase in landfills is influenced by waste composition, depth of waste, moisture content, dissolved oxygen, landfill design and operation, and waste age. 

Q17. Give the name of two collection system for landfill gases. 

Ans. Following are the two collection system of landfill gases: 

  • i. Passive gas collection system. 
  • ii. Active gas collection system. 

Unit-IV: Composting and Thermal Conversion Technology (Short Question)

Q1. What is composting ?

Ans. Composting is the natural process of ‘rotting’ or decomposition of organic materials under controlled conditions by microorganisms. After composting, raw organic materials such as crop residues, animal wastes, food waste, some municipal wastes, and acceptable industrial wastes improve their eligibility for application to the soil as a fertilising resource. 

Q2. Discuss various types of composting. 

Ans. Following are the various types of the composting of solid waste : 

  • i. Aerobic composting. 
  • ii. Anaerobic composting.
  • iii. Vermi-composting. 

Q3. Define incineration process. 

Ans. Incineration Process: The screens are burned in incinerators similar to those used for rubbish disposal. The process of burning is known as incineration.  

Q4. Explain the characteristics of good compost. 

Ans. Following are the characteristics of good compost : 

  • i. Compost should be dark brown in colour with profuse fire fangs. 
  • ii. Compost should have moisture percentage of about 68-70 percent. 
  • iii. pH of the compost should be in the range of 7.2-7.8. 
  • iv. There should not be any smell of ammonia.  
  • v. It should not be sticky or greasy.  
  • vi. It should be free from insects and nematodes. 

Q5. What do you understand by pyrolysis process ?

Ans. Pyrolysis Process: Most organic chemicals in solid waste can be separated into gaseous, liquid, and solid fractions via a combination of thermal cracking and condensation reactions when heated in closed containers in an oxygen-free atmosphere. This is referred to as pyrolysis or thermal pyrolysis. 

Q6. What do you mean by the C/N ratio ? 

Ans. The C/N ratio of the input material in the compost heap is critical for bacterial activity to continue, because bacteria utilise nitrogen to create cell structures (as proteins) and carbon for food (as energy). The anaerobic bacteria that form during this digestion consume carbon 30-50 times quicker than they consume nitrogen. As a result, for efficient anaerobic digestion development, the CIN ratio of the digestive material should be between 30 and 50 for optimum digestion. 

Q7. What is the anaerobic composting ?

Ans. Decomposition happens in anaerobic composting when oxygen is absent or limited. Anaerobic microorganisms dominate in this approach, producing intermediate chemicals such as methane, organic acids, hydrogen sulphide, and others. 

Q8. What is the aerobic composting ?

Ans. Aerobic composting occurs when oxygen is present. Aerobic bacteria degrade organic materials, producing carbon dioxide (CO2), ammonia, water, heat, and humus, a rather stable organic end product. 

Q9. What are the methods of thermal process of solid waste ?

Ans. The more important thermal methods that have been used for the recovery of usable conversion products are : 

  • i. Combustion (Incineration). 
  • ii. Gasification. 
  • iii. Pyrolysis.  

Q10. Give the two affecting of factors anaerobic composting.

Ans. Following are two factors affecting the anaerobic composting : 

  • i. Temperature. 
  • ii. pH value. 

Q11. What is vermi-composting ?  

Ans. Composting goals can also be met by enzymatic breakdown of organic materials as they move through earthworm digestive systems. This is referred to as vernmi-composting. 

Q12. Give any two factors affecting the aerobic composting. 

Ans. Following are the two factors affecting the aerobic composting : 

  • i. Aeration. 
  • ii. Moisture. 

Q13. What do you mean by the energy recovery from solid waste ? 

Ans. Energy Recovery from Solid waste: Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) contains both organic and inorganic material. The latent energy available in its organic part can be recovered for profitable use by implementing appropriate waste processing and treatment methods. 

Q14. Give the two advantages of incineration of solid waste. 

Ans. Following are the advantages of incineration of solid waste : 

  • i. It decreases organic waste solid bulk by 80-85% and volume by 95-96%, which is remarkable. 
  • ii. Incineration is an effective method of reducing waste volume and the demand for landfill space. 
  • iii. Incineration plants can be positioned near the source of waste, lowering the cost of garbage transportation.  

Q15.  Give the two advantages of aerobic composting. 

Ans. Following are two advantages of aerobic composting : 

  • i. Rapid decomposition of raw material. 
  • ii. Temperature of pile raises upto that level where pathogens and weeds cannot survive. 

Unit-V: Hazardous Waste (Short Question)

Q1. Define hazardous waste. 

Ans. Hazardous waste is defined as waste that has features that make it unsafe or capable of harming human health or the environment. Hazardous waste can come in a variety of forms, including liquids, solids, gases, and sludges, and is created from a variety of sources, including industrial production process wastes and batteries.   

Q2. What do you understand by biomedical wastes ? 

Ans. Biomedical Waste/Hospital Waste: It refers to any trash that contains infectious (or possibly contagious) components. It may also include waste associated with the generation of biomedical waste that appears to be of medical or laboratory origin (e.g., packaging, unused bandages, infusion kits, etc.), as well as research laboratory waste containing biomolecules or organisms that are primarily prohibited from being released into the environment. 

Q3. What are the sources of biomedical waste ? 

Ans. Hospitals, clinics, nursing homes, medical laboratories, physicians, dentists, veterinarians, and funeral homes are all potential contributors of biomedical waste. 

Q4. Explain biomedical waste management. 

Ans. Biomedical Waste Management: The Indian Union Ministry of Environment and Forests has issued the “Biomedical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules 1998” in response to the potential dangerous effects of medical wastes on individuals living in their vicinity. The Environment (Protection) Act of 1986 was used to notify these restrictions. Under these standards, every health care facility, large or small, will be required to establish plans to ensure that their waste is handled and managed in a way that does not endanger human health or the environment. 

Q5. What do you understand by resource recovery of waste ? 

Ans. The use of trash as an input material to create valuable items as new outputs is known as resource recovery. The goal is to limit waste generation, hence minimising the requirement for disposal space and optimising the values obtained from garbage. 

Q6. What do you understand by E-waste ?

Ans. Electronic waste, popularly known as E-waste, can be defined as electronic and electrical equipments/products (including the connecting power plugs and batteries), which have become obsolete due to : 

  • i. Changes in fashion, style and status. 
  • ii. Nearing the end of their useful life.  

Q7. Define electronic waste management. 

Ans. Electronic Waste Management : 

  • i. E-waste management is the practical and holistic approach that serves as the foundation for reducing trash on our planet. 
  • ii. It is the reuse and recycling of obsolete electronic garbage that can be recovered for some of its components. 

Q8. Give the two benefits of waste minimization.  

Ans. Following are the two benefits of waste minimization : 

  • i. Optimization of resources. 
  • ii. Quality control improvement and process monitoring. 

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