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(Aktu Btech) Quantity Estimation and Construction Management Important Unit-2 Analysis of Rates, Specification and Tenders

Use these crucial, recurrent Quantum Notes questions to strengthen your preparation for the Aktu Btech Power System-I exam. Improve your comprehension to do well on your examinations! Unit-2 Analysis of Rates, Specification and Tenders

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Important Questions For Quantity Estimation and Construction Management:
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Q1. What do you understand by ‘analysis of rates’ ? What are purposes of rate of analysis ?


  • 1. Rate analysis, also known as rate analysis or analysis of rate, is a method of determining the rate per unit of a specific item of work while taking into account the cost of quantities of materials, the cost of labour, the cost of hiring tools and plants, overhead charges, water charges, contractors profit, etc.
  • 2. Material rates are often determined by the rates delivered at the site of the project and include the first cost (cost of origin), transportation costs, any applicable railway freight, taxes, etc.
  • 3. Additional transportation costs may be incurred if the goods must be transported from a location that is far away more than 8 kilometres away.
  • 4. A contractor’s profit is added on all items of the particular work which have been arranged by him. 

Purposes of Rate Analysis: The purposes of rate analysis are as follows: 

  • 1. To ascertain the area’s current cost per unit of a certain type of work.
  • 2. To assess the viability of the prices that contractors have quoted.
  • 3. To determine the quantity of labour and supplies needed to finish the project.
  • 4. To update the rate schedule in light of rising labour and material costs or other circumstances.

Q2. What is specification and its objects ? Also explain its types. 

Ans. Specification: A specification is a list of specifics. Construction specifications can be characterized as detailed written instructions that identify (or limit) the construction work to be done.

Objects: Following are the objects of specification: 

  • 1. Contract Document: Specifications serves as a binding contract between the owner and the contractor, outlining and limiting each party’s obligations. 
  • 2. Guide to Bidders: With the help of specifications, contractors’ estimators can determine an accurate cost for the required work.
  • 3. Guide to Supervisors: Specifications serve as a guide for the fabrication and installation of materials and equipment. 

Types of Specification: Following are the two types of specification :  

  • 1. General Specifications:
    • i. The nature, class, and names of the materials that shall be utilized are stated in general specifications.
    • ii. Each and every object is only provided a cursory description. It is helpful for project estimation.
    • iii. The general requirements are not included in the contract instrument.
  • 2. Detailed Specifications: 
    • i. A contract paper includes the specific requirements.
    • ii. They outline the types, amounts, and ratios of the materials to be used, as well as the preparation and execution procedures for a specific piece of work within a project.
    • iii. Each item of the job has its own comprehensive specifications, which outline the nature of the task and how it should be carried out.
    • iv. The order in which the job is to be completed must be preserved while writing the precise requirements.

Q3. Write down a detailed specification of cement concrete 1:2:4. 

Ans. Detailed Specification of Cement Concrete 1:2:4: Following are the point consider in specifications of cement concrete 1:2:4:

  • 1. Materials:
    • i. The aggregate must be made of recyclable materials and must be solid, thick, hard, long-lasting, non-absorbent, and able to form a strong connection with mortar.
    • ii. Coarse aggregate must be made of hard, fractured granite or a stone similar to it and must be devoid of dust, filth, and other foreign substances.
    • The stone ballast must be at least 20 mm in size and no smaller, and it must all be held in a 5 mm square mesh that is adequately graded such that the voids are kept to a maximum of 42%.
    • iv. For mass work and road construction, 20 mm gauge and 40 to 60 mm gauge, respectively, may be used.
    • v. Fine aggregate must pass through a screen with a mesh size of 5 mm and be made of coarse sand with hard, sharp, and angular grains.
    • vi. The cement must be new Portland cement that meets ISI standards and has the necessary tensile, compressive, and fineness stresses.
    • vii Water must be pure, free of acidic and alkaline substances, and safe to drink.
  • 2. Proportion:
    • i. The proportion of concrete shall be 1:2:4 as cement: sand: stone ballast by volume unless otherwise specified. 
    • ii. Minimum compressive strength of concrete of 1:2:4 proportion shal be 140 kg per sq cm (2000 Ibs/sq in) on 7 days. 
    • iii. Stone aggregate and sand shall be measured by volume with boxes. 
    • iv. Cement need not be measured by box, one bag of cement (50 kg) should be considered as 1/30 cum. 
    • v. Size of measured box may be 30 cm x 30 cm x 38 cm or 35 cm x 35 cim x 28 cm equivalent to content of one bag of cement.
  • 3. Hand Mixing:
    • i. Mixing must be done on a masonry platform or in a tray made of sheet iron.
    • ii. For concrete with a 1:2:4 ratio, two boxes of sand and one bag of cement must first be fully mixed in the dry state before being stacked on top of four boxes of stone aggregate. This process must then be repeated at least three times to provide a consistent mix.
    • iii. Using a water-can while, water must then be supplied gently and progressively in accordance with the water cement ratio.
    • iv. To produce a homogenous concrete, the mixture must be fully mixed and turned at least three times.
  • 4. Machine mixing: 
    • i. The cement concrete mixer must be filled with the appropriate amount of sand, cement, and stone ballast.
    • ii. Using a mixer, the dry ingredients must first be mixed with the machine rotating before the necessary amount of water is gradually added.
  • 5. Formwork
    • i. When pouring concrete, formwork centering and shuttering must be provided as needed and in accordance with standard requirements to contain, support, or maintain the concrete’s position.
    • ii. The interior of the shuttering must be lubricated to keep concrete from adhering to it.
    • iii. Before pouring concrete, the base and formwork must be hydrated by sprinkling water on them.
    • iv. In general, forms shouldn’t be taken down before 14 days, although side forms can be taken down three days after the concrete has set.  
  • 6. Laying:
    • i. Concrete must be placed carefully not thrown in layers no thicker than 15 cm, then tamped into place with wooden tampers or a mechanical vibrating machine to achieve a dense consistency.
    • ii. Concrete must be laid continuously; if it is stopped for a break or the following day, the end must be sloped at a 30-degree inclination and left unfinished to allow for more jointing.
    • iii. The prior sloped section must be roughened when work is resumed. Fresh concrete should be laid after being cleaned, irrigated, and grouted with neat cement.
    • iv. For subsequent layers, the top layer must be applied before the bottom one has had time to set.
  • 7. Curing: After the concrete has been laid for about two hours and has started to harden, it must be kept damp by being covered with wet gunny bags or wet sand for 24 hours before being cured by flooding with water to create mud walls that are 7.5 cm high, covering with wet sand, or by being covered with wet earth and kept damp continuously for 15 days.  

Q4. Explain the legal aspects of contracts and various laws related to contracts. 

Ans. Legal Aspects:

  • i. The project’s construction is done on land. The construction project must be compliant with the laws controlling the property in order for the contract to be legally enforceable.
  • ii. They include rules established by the government for the use of property and obligations brought about by building.
  • iii. A contract must be created in such a way as to ensure that each party is able to fulfill their end of the bargain since it involves an exchange of duties between two or more parties.

The following are the essential elements of a valid contract that must be met in order for it to be legally binding on all parties.

  • 1. Legally Competent Parties:
    • i. The parties to a contract must be legally competent, according to the Indian Contract Act.
    • ii. A contract may be signed by anyone who is of legal age and sound mind.
    • iii. No contract can be signed by a subordinate authority who has not received a directive or authorization.
  • 2. Free Consent of Parties: 
    • i. It means concurring of two minds in respect of the same opinion, purpose or understanding as regards the course to be pursued. 
    • ii. Contract is said to be free consent when:
      • a. It is not caused under any influence. 
      • b. It is not caused by mistake. 
      • c. It is not caused by misrepresentation. 
      • d. It is not caused by fraud. 
      • e. It is not caused under duress.
  • 3. Proper and Valid Consideration:
    • i. According to legal definition, a valid consideration is an action or a commitment to act taken by one party in exchange for money, a promise or the concession of some interests by another party.
    • ii. The payment may not be sufficient or a complete fulfilment of the promise, but it must be partial, genuine, and not unlawful, ambiguous, impossible, or doubtful.
  • 4. Meaningful Contract in Writing and Signed by Both Parties:
    • i. The agreement’s meaning should be certain or able to be made certain.
    • ii. The contract must be signed by representatives of both parties who have the authority to do so, as required by law.
    • iii. In the case of public bodies, a representative authorized for this purpose signs the agreement and adds the seal of the public body.
  • 5. Various Laws: 
    • i. The Law of Contracts serves as the cornerstone of business law because contracts serve as the foundation for the majority of commercial transactions.
    • ii. The Indian Contract Act, 1872, contains the laws governing contracts in India.
    • Although they ostensibly fall under the umbrella of the Law of Contracts, the Partnership Act, the Sale of Goods Act, the Negotiable Instruments Act, and the Companies Act have their own laws that govern them.
    • iv. All such contracts, however, nevertheless have as their foundation the normal rules of contract law.
    • The main features of the Law of Contracts are:
      • a. The parties to the contract make the law for themselves. 
      • b. The Act is not exhaustive since, it does not take into its purview all the relevant legislations.
      • c. It does not override customs or usages.  

Q5. Write down the elements of tender preparation. 

Ans. Following are the elements of tender preparation: 

  • 1. The purchasing agency demands a realistic estimate of the structure’s cost with a breakdown of key cost components as part of the preparation work and before any tender is launched.
  • 2. An engineer should be chosen and assigned to generate such an estimate in addition to performing the preliminary work to make sure the contractor is following the plan and providing the greatest quality work feasible.
  • 3. The survey and design work necessary to create quantities and guideline costings, as well as the creation of tender and contract agreements, should be completed in a timely manner.
  • 4. If funding is to come from international loan agencies or donors, their standards must be followed, and at the start of the process, examples of advertising and documentation from these organizations should be gathered.
  • 5. As part of the preparation process, you might need to apply for water and land rights, conduct environmental impact analyses, and create any necessary compensation or resettlement plans.
  • 6. They must be finished before any construction is authorized and permitted to start.

Q6. Explain the procedure of opening the tenders, acceptance of tenders and the execution of agreement for carrying out a work.

Ans. A. Tender Opening Procedure: 

  • 1. The unopened tender envelopes will be collected by a member of the tender panel from secure storage, and the panel will assemble, preferably in a quiet place.
  • 2. The tender date, tenderer’s name, tender sum(s), and delivery time should be noted on the schedule of tenders once each envelope has been opened.
  • 3. A member of the tender panel should date stamp and initial each document that contains prices.
  • 4. Each member of the tender panel shall sign the schedule of tenders after all bids have been recorded.
  • 5. The tender panel should make sure that the tender sums) on each copy are similar when more than one copy of a tender is filed.
  • 6. One copy should be designated as the “Master Copy” and kept by the individual in charge of the tender exercise since it will be included in the contract documentation.
  • 7. The Buying Office should get a copy of the finished schedule of tenders.

B. Acceptance Procedure:

  • 1. Communicate the decision to all bidders as soon as possible.
  • 2. Arrange for any papers retained by unsuccessful tenderers to be returned.
  • 3. Send out a letter of acceptance instructing the contractor to handle any future communications with the Engineer under the contract, outlining any conditions or provisos that have been agreed upon since issuing the paperwork.
  • 4. In the event that official acceptance is delayed, a letter of intent providing directions on how to proceed (or not to proceed) with the design, ordering materials, etc., as well as establishing a cap on financial liability prior to formal acceptance may be sent.

C. Execution of Agreement: When concluding a contract or agreement, the parties shall clearly state how they will perform their obligations. 

  • 1. The responsibilities under the contract must be fulfilled in accordance with the terms of the agreement and any applicable legal requirements, or, in the absence of such restrictions and requirements, with widely accepted standards.
  • 2. Unless specified otherwise by law or the terms of the contract, unilateral refusal to perform the duty and unilateral modification of its condition are not permitted.
  • 3. The creditor has the right to refuse the fulfillment of the duties in portions, unless the law or the terms of the obligation specify otherwise.
  • 4. When the obligation is fulfilled, the debtor has the right to request proof that it was received by the creditor or a representative designated by the creditor, and he or she assumes the risk of repercussions if the demand is not met.
  • 5. The debtor may delegate the performance of the obligation to a third party, unless the terms of the obligation, the nature of the obligation, or the law requires the debtor to carry out the obligation themselves. In this situation, the creditor must accept the performance that the third party is offering in place of the debtor.
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