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Quantity Estimation and Construction Management KCE-503 Btech Aktu Short Question Pdf

Learn more about the B.Tech AKTU Quantum Book Short Question Notes on Quantity Estimation and Construction Management. Learn the foundational ideas behind cost projection, project planning, and effective construction management methods.

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Unit-I: Quantity Estimation for Buildings (Short Question)

Q1. What do you understand by ‘Estimate’ ?

Ans. Estimate is a technique that helps us figure out how much it will cost, how many tools and workers we’ll need, and how long it will take to finish the job.

Q2. Enumerate the different methods to calculate earthwork.

Ans. Following are the methods to calculate earthwork:

  • i. Separate or individual wall method.
  • ii. Centre line method.

Q3. List the data required to make out estimation for a work. 

Ans. To make out an estimate for a work, the following data is necessary: 

  • i. Drawings (plan and section).
  • ii. Specification. 
  • iii. Rates. 

Q4. Units of measurements for various items of building construction.

Ans. Item of work Units of measurements:

  • i. Earthwork – m3
  • ii. Concrete – m3
  • iii. Damp proof course (thickness mentioned) – m3
  • iv. Brick work – m3
  • v. Steel work – m3
  • vi. Plastering, points, and finishing – m3
  • vii. Wood work – m3

Q5. What are the types of approximate estimates ?

Ans. Following are the various type of approximate estimates:

  • 1. Unit estimate. 
  • 2. Square meter of floor area. 
  • 3. Cubic meter of the building.
  • 4. Rough grouped quantities or elemental bill method. 
  • 5. Detailed quantities of a bag. 
  • 6. Comparison of costs at relative dates.  

Q6. What is preliminary estimate ? 

Ans. This estimate allows the relevant authority to assess the financial aspects of the plan before granting sanction by determining an approximate cast in a short amount of time.

Unit-II: Analysis of Rates, Specification and Tenders (Short Question)

Q1. What are the different types of specifications ? 

Ans. Following are the different types of specifications:

  • i. General or brief specification. 
  • ii. Detailed specification. 

Q2. What are the difference between brief specification and detailed specification? 


S. No.Brief specification Detailed specification
1.The specification that provides a concise summary of different things.The item of work is thoroughly described in the comprehensive specification.
2.Brief specification specifies the materials, quantities, proportion of materials.The specification contains specific information about the different material quantities and the required workmanship techniques.
3.It gives general idea about the whole work. It gives nature and class of work in detail. 
4.The project’s concise requirements are the general specification utilized for project estimation.In relation to the work’s drawings, the comprehensive specification precisely and completely explains the item of work.   

Q3. What is the purpose of analysis of rates ? 

Ans. Following are the various purpose of the analysis of rates: 

  • i. To work out the actual cost per unit of the items. 
  • ii. To work out the economical use of materials and processes in completing the particular item. 
  • iii. To revise the schedule of rates due to increase in the cost of material and labour or due to change in technique.  

Q4. Define contract.

Ans. As per the Indian Contract Act, 1872, a ‘contract’ is an agreement enforceable by law. The agreements that are not enforceable by law are not contracts.

Q5. Describe the term land acquisition. 

Ans. Land acquisition in India is the procedure by which the central or a state government buys private land for industrialisation, infrastructure development, or urbanization of the private land while compensating the affected landowners and arranging for their rehabilitation and relocation.

Q6. What are the different types of land acquisition ?  

Ans. There are two types of land acquisition for a project : 

i. Permanent land, and                                    ii. Temporary land.

Q7. What is permanent land?

Ans. The land which is to be acquired permanently for the expected life of the project is called permanent land.

Q8. Define temporary land. 

Ans. Temporary land refers to any areas that are required in addition to permanently acquired land to carry out the building and installation of the pipe lines system and associated amenities.

Q9. Write down the different laws related to labour safety and welfare. 

Ans. Laws related to labour safety and welfare are:

  • i. Payment of wages act,                                 
  • ii. Minimum wages act,
  • iii. Factories act,                                                 
  • iv. Contract labour act, 
  • v. Labour welfare fund act, 
  • vi. Workmen’s compensation act, and 
  • vii. Trade union act.  

Q10. Discuss contract labour act, 1970. 

Ans. The measures in this act are aimed at enhancing contract labour conditions. This act mandates that contractors register themselves and receive registration certificates.

Q11. In which case, financial relief is given ?  

Ans. Financial relief is given in the following cases: 

  • i. In case of death. 
  • ii. On account of occupational diseases. 
  • iii. For permanent/partial disablement. 
  • iv. Half monthly payments for temporary disablement. 

Q12. Classify contracts.

Ans. Contracts are classified as follows : 

  • i. Item rate contract,                          
  • ii. Percentage rate contract, 
  • iii. Lump-sum contract,                     
  • iv. Labour contract,
  • v. Material supply contract,               
  • vi. Cost plus percentage rate contract,
  • vii. Cost plus fixed fee contract,       
  • vii. Cost plus sliding. 
  • ix. Target contract, and                     
  • x. Negotiated contract. 

Q13. Show some conditions under which a contract can be terminated. 

Ans. The contract may be terminated in the following conditions: 

  • i. Completion of work,
  • ii. By agreement, 
  • iii. By breach of condition, 
  • iv. By impossibility of complete, and 
  • v. By bankruptcy.  

Q14. What are the contents of a tender notice?  

Ans. The contents of the tender notice are: 

  • i. Name of the authority inviting the bids. 
  • ii. Name of the project. 
  • iii. Conditions for eligibility of contracting agencies to submit a bid. 
  • iv. Brief details of project. 
  • v. Estimated cost and time of completion of project. 
  • vi. The cost of the tender documents. 
  • vii. Earnest money to be deposited with the complete tender 
  • viii. Data and time by which the bids are to be submitted. 
  • ix. Data and time of opening of the bids. 
  • x. Validity of tender, etc. 

Q15. What is letter of intent ?  

Ans. A letter of intent is sent to the contractor, asking him to provide the relevant paperwork, such as the partnership deed in the case of a partnership firm and an income tax clearance, if the competent authority accepts the tender committee’s recommendations. 

Q16. Define tender. 

Ans. A written tender is an offer made by the contractor to the party or owner to carry out a specific job at a specific rate and within a specific time frame, subject to certain contract and agreement terms.

Element of Management and Network Techniques (Short Question)

Q1. What is the term planning ? 

Ans. The process of considering and organizing the actions necessary to accomplish a desired objective is called planning. It entails the construction and upkeep of a plan, including psychological factors that call for mental abilities.

Q2. What are the important and stage in the planning of a project?

Ans. These are the following eight steps of project planning: 

  • i. Define, 
  • ii. Establish goals, 
  • iii. Development of activities objectives, 
  • iv. Evaluate the resources, 
  • iv. Determine alternatives, 
  • v. Test consistency, 
  • vii. Decision making, and 
  • vii. Finalizing. 

Q3. Write the classification of scheduling.

Ans. Following are the classification of scheduling.

  • i. Long term scheduling 
  • ii. Medium term scheduling 
  • iii. Short term scheduling 
  • iv. Non-preemptive scheduling 
  • v. Preemptive scheduling 

Q4. State the objectives of integrated project management. 

Ans. The goal of IPM is to establish and manage the project, as well as the participation of pertinent stakeholders, in accordance with a specified, integrated process that is specifically adapted from the organization’s collection of standard procedures.

Q5. Define network with example. 

Ans. A network is an arrow diagram used to show the relationships and timing of all a project’s necessary construction activities.


Define network with example. Quantity Estimation and Construction Management

Q6. What do you understand by predecessor events and successor events ?

Ans. Predecessor Events: The event or events that take place before another event are referred to as its predecessor event(s). 

Successor Events: Successor events to that event are the event or events that occur after that event.

Q7. Define predecessor activity. 

Ans. The term “predecessor activity” refers to an activity or set of activities that must be completed before the activity under discussion. 

Q8. Define successor activities.

Ans. Successor activities are an activity or set of activities that must be carried out after the activity under consideration has been completed.

Q9. Define dummy activity. 

Ans. A dummy is a fictitious activity that appears as a dotted arrow on the arrow diagram and signifies that the activity or activities before the dummy must be finished before the activity or activities following the dummy may begin. A dummy activity does not require any time and resource.

Define dummy activity.

Q10. What is the critical path and critical activities ?

Ans. The crucial path is the path with the longest duration, and the activities found on this path are referred to as critical activities. 

Q11. What do you understand by EST and EFT? 

Ans. EST: EST is also known as Earliest Start Time. It is the earliest possible time at which an activity can start. 

EFT: EFT is also known as Earliest Finish Time. It is the earliest possible time at which an activity can finish. 

Q12. What is float? 

Ans. The term “float” refers to the flexibility range where the start time or finish time of an activity can vary without compromising the project’s completion.

Q13. Give the classification of float.

Ans. There are four types of float which are as follows :

Give the classification of float.

Q14. Define bar chart. 

Ans. The illustrative charts are bar charts. It has two coordinate axes: a horizontal axis for describing time and a vertical axis for representing tasks or activities. Bars are used to depict the various jobs.

Q15. Write down the advantages of bar charts. 

Ans. Following are the advantages of bar charts: 

  • 1. It is quick and easy to draw, and it is straightforward to understand.
  • 2. The chart can be made without the aid of professional or skilled persons.
  • 3. The percentage of progress made at the site is stated.
  • 4. It might be applied to the representation of a construction project’s resource needs.

Q16. What are the limitations of bar charts ?

Ans. Following are the limitations of bar charts:

  • 1. The interdependencies between the various operations cannot be depicted using a bar chart.
  • 2. Critical and non-critical actions are not separate in a bar chart.
  • 3. It does not make it easier to manage, track, and update the project.

Q17. Illustrate the CPM technique as used in scheduling a construction project.

Ans. In applying the CPM, there are several steps that can be summarized as follows:

  • i. Define the required tasks and put them down in an ordered (sequenced) list. 
  • ii. Create a flow chart or other diagram showing each task in relation to the others. 
  • iii. Identify the critical and non-critical relationships (paths) among tasks. 
  • iv. Determine the expected completion or execution time for each task. 
  • v. Locate or devise alternatives (backups) for the most critical paths. 

Q18. Suggest a suitable method for submitting the periodical reports for effective control through CPM.

Ans. PERT is suitable method for submitting the periodical reports for effective control through CPM. 

Q19. Difference between CPM and PERT? 


i.It is an activity oriented.It is an event oriented.
ii.Cost is the governing factor.Time is the governing factor. 
iii.In this project, duration is fixed and cost is minimum. Cost is directly proportional to time.
iv.The critical path in CPM is that path which joins the critical activities. Critical path is that path which joins the critical events.

Unit-IV: Equipment Management (Short Question)

Q1. Define productivity.  

Ans. A measure of productivity is how effectively resources are put to use to generate output.

Q2. What is profitability ?

Ans. Profitability is the ratio of difference of revenue and cost to investment.

What is profitability ?

Q3. What is total factor productivity ?

Ans. It measures how much net output there is in comparison to all the labour and capital inputs combined. Net output is the amount produced less costs for materials, capital, energy, and other inputs.  

What is total factor productivity ?

Q4. Define total productivity. 

Ans. It is the proportion of overall output to the total of all input variables. It represents the combined effect of every input factor on the end result.

Define total productivity.

Q5. What are the different methods to measure productivity ? 

Ans. There are three major types of productivity measures:

  • i. Partial productivity, 
  • ii. Total factor productivity, and 
  • iii. Total productivity. 

Q6. Explain productivity index. 

Ans. The productivity of the current year is contrasted with that of the base year using this method. Any year that the business employs for comparison studies is the base year.

Explain productivity index.

Q7. What is deflator ?

Ans. The current year price to base year price ratio is what’s important. Deflators are used to cancel out the impact of price changes from one year to the next. 

What is deflator ?

Q8. What is investment cost ? 

Ans. Equipment ownership requires financial outlay on the part of the owner, as well as payment of any applicable taxes, insurance premiums, and storage fees. All of them comprise investment costs.

Q9. Define operating cost.

Ans. Fuel for construction machinery must come in the form of oil, diesel, electricity, and petrol lubricating oil, and this is regarded as an operating expense.

Q10. What are the factors affecting the selection of equipments?  

Ans. Following are the factors affecting the selection of equipments:

  • i. Easting equipment. 
  • ii. Operating cost. 
  • iii. Availability of equipment. 
  • iv. Economic life. 
  • v. Study of site condition. 
  • vi. Suitability of equipment for future. 
  • vii. Size of equipment. 

Q11. What are the various excavating and earth moving equipments ? 

Ans. Following are the excavating and earth moving equipments is used:

  • i. Power shovel,  
  • ii. Back hoe, 
  • iii. Dragline, 
  • iv. Clam shell, 
  • v. Scraper, and 
  • vi. Bulldozer

Q12. Enumerate the earth compaction equipments for construction. 

Ans. Following are the equipment used for compaction:

  • i. Smooth-wheel rollers. 
  • ii. Sheep foot rollers: 
    • a. Ordinary sheep foot roller 
    • b. Convertible roller. 
  • iii. Pneumatic tyred rollers.

Q13. What is hauling equipment ? Also enlist them. 

Ans. The equipments used for transportation of material are known as hauling equipments or simply haulers. 

Types: It includes:

  • i. Dump trucks: 
    • a. Side or rear dump truck. 
    • b. Bottom dump trucks. 
  • ii. Dumpers or tractors.  

Q14. Enlist the conveying equipment using in construction industry. 

Ans. Following are the equipments which are used for conveying:

i. Belt conveyor.                             ii. Screw conveyor. 

iii. Bucket conveyor.                      iv. Aerial conveyor.

Q15. Give the advantages of conveyor equipments. 

Ans. Following are the advantages of using conveyor equipment: 

  • i. It increases the output. 
  • ii It facilitates continuity in operation. 
  • iii. It results in time saving. 
  • iv. There are no waiting periods.  

Q16. Explain the advantages of belt conveyor system?  

Ans. Following are the advantages of belt conveyor system:

  • i. lt can handle light as well as heavy materials, dry or wet, fine or coarse etc. 
  • ii. It is lighter in weight then other conveyors. 
  • iii. In this system discharge controlled by speed of belt.

Q17. Describe the equipments which are used for hoisting purpose.

Ans. Hoisting equipment includes:

  • i. Jacks.                                        
  • ii. Winches. 
  • iii, Chain hoist. 
  • iv. Crain:
    • a. Stationary or derrick cranes. 
    • b. Mobile cranes. 
    • c. Overhead or gantry cranes. 
    • d. Traveller cranes. 
    • e. Tower crane.

Q18. Write down the advantages of hoisting equipments. 

Ans. Following are the advantages of hoisting equipments:

  • i. It can lift the load and place it on the desired location.
  • ii. The load can be hold in suspension during transfer from one location to other. 

Q19. Give the comparison of crawler and wheeled tractor.  


S. No.Crawler TypeWheeled Type 
1.More compact and powerful and can handle heavier jobs.Can handle only lighter jobs. 
2.Slow speed and costly. Greater speed and cheaper.  
3.Stick control for steering. Wheel steering control. 
4.Cost of operation and maintenance is high.Operation and maintenance cost is less.

Q20. Enlist the tunneling equipment.  

Ans. Following are the tunneling equipments:

i. TBM (Tunnel boring machine). 

ii. Jack hammer or sinker.                        iii. Drifter  

iv. Piston drill.                                           v. Blast-hole drill. 

vi. Shot drill.                                             vii Diamond drill. 

viii Drill bit. 

Q21. Write the methods of tunneling.  

Ans. Following are the methods of tunneling: 

i. Classical method e.g. English method, Austrian, German, etc.

ii. Cut and cover.                                   iii. Drill and blast.

iv. Tunnel boring machines (TBMs). 

v. Immersed tunnel.                               vi. Tunnel jacking. 

Q22. What are the basic operations involved in concrete production ?

Ans. The basic operations involved in concrete production are :

i. Batching,                                                ii. Mixing,

iii. Transporting,                                        iv. Placing,

v. Consolidating,                                       vi. Finishing, and 

vii. Curing.

Unit-V: Project Cost Management (Short Question)

Q1. Define engineering economics.  

Ans. Engineering economics is the study of techniques that make it possible to make choices that will minimize costs and/or maximize profits to business organizations.

Q2. What are the different scopes of engineering economics ?

Ans. Following are the scopes of engineering economics: 

  • i. Better decision making on the part of engineering. 
  • ii. It has wide scope in manufacturing, construction, mining and other engineering industries.
  • iii. Efficient use of resources results in better output and economics advancement. 

Q3. What is the concept of time value of money ?

Ans. If the interest rate is higher than zero, the time value of money states that two equal amounts at separate times do not have equal value. The temporal value of money is a concept derived from the interaction between interest and time. 

Q4. What do you understand by cash flow diagram in a project ?  

Ans. A cash flow diagram is a graphical representation of the cash flows, including both cash inflows and outflows with respect to a time scale. 

Q5.  What is direct cost?

Ans. The resources used in the project, such as materials, labour, plants and machines, etc., directly affect direct expenses.

Q6. What do you mean by indirect cost ?

Ans. Every project involves the cost of purchasing resources and the cost of operations, as well as overhead, administrative costs, depreciation, lost profit, lost of income, penalty, etc.

Q7. What is total cost ?

Ans. The cost is the summation of the direct cost and indirect cost. 

Total cost (TC) = Direct cost (DC) + Indirect cost (IC)  

Q8. Define cost slope. 

Ans. The cost slope is the slope of the direct cost curve appropriated as straight line. The cost slope is defined as follows: 

Define cost slope.

Q9. Brief short notes on total cost curve.  

Ans. The direct cost and indirect cost added together constitute the total project cost. Fig. shows the indirect cost curve, direct cost curve and the corresponding total cost curve. If the project duration is increased, total cost will be the highest, 

Brief short notes on total cost curve.

Q10. What are the different bases of comparing the worthiness of the project? 

Ans. There are several bases for comparing the worthiness of the projects. These bases are:

  • i. Present worth method, 
  • ii. Future worth method, 
  • iii. Annual equivalent method, and 
  • iv. Rate of return method.  

Q11. Give the reason of replacement of asset. 

Ans. There are two basic reasons for considering the replacement of equipment:

  • i. Physical impairment of the various parts.
  • ii. Obsolescence of the equipment. 

Physical impairment solely refers to alterations in the machine’s physical state, whereas obsolescence results from advancements in industrial tools, particularly technology.

Q12. What do you mean by depreciation ?

Ans. Depreciation is the loss in asset value brought on by degradation, abuse by us, obsolescence brought on by advancements in design and new technologies.

Q13. What are the different types of depreciation ?

Ans. Following are the types of different:

  • i. Physical depreciation, 
  • ii. Function depreciation, and 
  • iii. Contingent depreciation.

Q14. What are the different methods for calculate depreciation? 

Ans. Following are the different methods for determining depreciation: 

  • i. Straight line method of depreciation, 
  • ii. Declining balance method of depreciation, 
  • iii. Sum of the years digits method of depreciation, 
  • iv. Sinking fund method of depreciation, and 
  • v. Service output method of depreciation. 

Q15. Differentiate between depreciation and obsolescence. 


S. No.Depreciation Obsolescence
i.This is the actual decrease in property value brought on by damage, deterioration, etc.This is a functional loss in the property’s value as a result of changes in demand, design, structure, fashion, utility, and other factors. 
ii.It depends upon its original conditions, quality of maintenance and mode of use.It depends upon the technological advancement, art, etc.
iii.It varies with age. Not dependent on age.

Q16. What is salvage value or resale value ?

Ans. It is the asset’s value at the end of its useful life when it hasn’t been broken down. Salvage value suggests that the asset has additional use.

Q17. Define scrap value. 

Ans. A property’s scrap value is the amount realized when it is wholly unusable and can only be sold as rubbish. It is assumed that the article has little utility.

Q18. What is book value ?

Ans. When the original cost of a property is less than the total amount of depreciation up to that year, it is defined as the worth of the property as indicated in the account book for that specific year.

Q19. What is the main objective of cost control system ?  

Ans. The budgeting phase is when the cost control system’s major focus on finding and lowering corporate expenses to boost profits begins.

Q20. Define break even cost analysis. 

Ans. 1. Break even cost analysis is a tool for studying the relationship between volume, cost, revenue and profit.

 2. It is helpful in profit planning, the profitability projections are essential to judge the financial desirability ie., profitability of project. 

Q21. Write the assumptions of break even analysis. 

Ans. Following are the assumption of break even analysis: 

  • i. The unit selling price is constant, this means that total revenue varies linearly. 
  • ii. The total cost is equal to the sum of fíxed cost and variable cost. 
  • iii. Inventory charges are nil.

Q22. What do you mean by break even chart ? 

Ans. i. A break-even chart illustrates the relationship between costs and revenues for any output volume that could be produced.

ii. The primary goal of the graphical tool is to identify the breakeven point and profit potential under a range of output and cost scenarios.

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