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Btech Aktu Cloud Computing KCS-713 Short Question, Quantum Book, Notes Pdf

Learn about the B.Tech AKTU Quantum Book Short Question Notes on Cloud Computing. Learn the fundamentals of virtualized computing resources, scalability, and novel cloud technologies for modern applications.

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Unit-I: Introduction Cloud Computing (Short Question)

Q1. Define the term cloud. 

Ans. The cloud is a collection of physical computing equipment, software, storage devices, and application programming interfaces (APIs) that interact and communicate with one another to provide cloud computing features in a service model. 

Q2. What do you understand by cloud computing?

Ans. Cloud computing is a computer paradigm in which a large number of systems are linked together over private or public networks to provide dynamically scalable infrastructure for application, data, and file storage.  

Q3. What are the features of cloud computing ?

Ans. Features of cloud computing are: 

  • 1. On-demand self-service 
  • 2. Compatibility 
  • 3. Reliability 
  • 4. Disaster recovery 

Q4. What are the advantages of using cloud computing ? 

Ans. Advantages of using cloud computing are :

  • 1. Cost saving  
  • 2. Excellent accessibility 
  • 3. High speed 
  • 4. Unlimited storage capacity 

Q5. What are benefits of cloud computing ?  

Ans. Benefits of cloud computing are: 

  • 1. High availability 
  • 2. High productivity 
  • 3. Easy to manage 
  • 4. Increased mobility 
  • 5. Less development time  

Q6. What are disadvantages of cloud computing ?

Ans. Disadvantages of cloud computing are: 

  • 1. Technical issues 
  • 2. Performance can vary 
  • 3. Internet connectivity 
  • 4. Vulnerability to attacks 
  • 5. Lack of support 

Q7. What are the service models of cloud computing?  

Ans. Service models of cloud computing are: 

  • 1. Infrastructure-as-a-Service 
  • 2. Platform-as-a-Service 
  • 3. Software-as-a-Service  

Q8. Mention platforms which are used for large scale cloud computing. 

Ans. The platforms that are used for cloud computing are: 

  • 1. Apache Hadoop 
  • 2. MapReduce 

Q9. List some visions of cloud computing. 

Ans. Visions of cloud computing are: 

  • 1. Cloud computing allows a person with money to provision virtual hardware, runtime environment, and services. 
  • 2. These items can be utilised for as long as the user requires them; no upfront commitment is required. 
  • 3. In order to keep its promises to customers, a cloud provider may become a consumer of a competitor’s service. 

Q10. Write the components of cloud. 

Ans. Components of cloud computing are: 

  • 1. Cloud service consumer 
  • 2. Cloud service provider 
  • 3. Internet medium 
  • 4. Data centre 

Q11. What are the challenges of cloud computing?  

Ans. Challenges of cloud computing are: 

  • 1. Data protection 
  • 2. Data recovery and availability 
  • 3. Management capabilities 
  • 4. Regulatory and compliance restrictions 

Q12. Define parallel computing. 

Ans. Parallel computing is a sort of combining in which multiple calculations or processes are run at the same time. 

Q13. Define distributed computing. 

Ans. Distributed computing is a sort of computation in which networked computers connect and coordinate work by exchanging messages to achieve a common goal. 

Q14. What are the advantages of distributed computing ? 

Ans. Advantages of distributed computing are: 

  • 1. Reliability 
  • 2. Incremental growth 
  • 3. Sharing of resource 
  • 4. Flexibility 
  • 5. Speed 

Q15. What are the disadvantages of distributed computing? 

Ans. Disadvantages of distributed computing are:

  • 1. Less software support 
  • 2. Loss of message 
  • 3. Data security 
  • 4. Trouble shooting and diagnosing

Q16. Name the technologies used for distributed computing. 

Ans. Technologies used for distributed computing are: 

  • 1. Remote procedure call 
  • 2. Distributed object framework 

Q17. What are the categories of parallel computing systems ?

Ans. Categories of parallel computing system: 

  • 1. Bit level parallelism 
  • 2. Instruction level parallelism 

Q18. Define the challenges in cloud. 

Ans. Challenges in cloud are : 

  • 1. Lack of control 
  • 2. Interoperability 
  • 3. Resource management  

Q19. List the components in architecture of cloud computing. 

Ans. Components in architecture of cloud computing: 

  • 1. Front end platform 
  • 2. Back end platform 
  • 3. Cloud based delivery 
  • 4. Network  

Q20. What are the various cloud computing technologies ? 

Ans. Various cloud computing technologies are: 

  • 1. Amazon Web Service (AWS) 
  • 2. Microsoft Azure 
  • 3. and 

Q21. What are the issues in cloud computing?  

Ans. Issues in cloud computing are: 

  • 1. Security issues 
  • 2. Data issues 
  • 3. Performance issues 
  • 4. Energy related issues 
  • 5. Fault tolerant 

Q22. What are the advantages of parallel computing ?  

Ans. Advantages of parallel computing are: 

  • 1. Save time and money 
  • 2. Solve larger problems 
  • 3. Provide concurrency 
  • 4. Multiple execution units

Unit-II: Cloud Enabling Technologies (Short Question)

Q1. Define SOA. 

Ans. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) is an architectural concept in which programmes make advantage of network services. It is a software design paradigm in which application components give services to other components using a network communication protocol. 

Q2. What are the major roles of SOA?  

Ans. Major roles of SOA are: 

  • 1. Service provider 
  • 2. Service consumer 

Q3. What are the guiding principles of SOA ?

Ans. Guiding principles of SOA are:  

  • 1. Standardized service contract 
  • 2. Loose coupling
  • 3. Abstraction 
  • 4. Reusability 
  • 5. Autonomy 
  • 6. Lack of state 
  • 7. Discoverability 
  • 8. Composability 

Q4. What are the advantages of SOA ?

Ans. Advantages of SOA are: 

  • 1. Service reusability 
  • 2. Easy maintenance 
  • 3. Platform independent 
  • 4. Availability 
  • 5. Reliability 
  • 6. Scalability 

Q5. What are the disadvantages of SOA ?

Ans. Disadvantages of SOA are: 

  • 1. High overhead
  • 2. High investment 
  • 3. Complex service management

Q6. What do you understand by REST?

Ans. Representational State Transfer (REST) is a method of retrieving information content from a website by reading a specific web page that contains an XML file that describes the needed content. 

Q7. What are the architectural constraints of web services ? 

Ans. Architectural constraints of web services are: 

  • 1. Uniform interface 
  • 2. Stateless 
  • 3. Cacheable 
  • 4. Client-Server 
  • 5. Layered system 
  • 6. Code on demand 

Q8. What is RESTful API?

Ans. A RESTful API is an Application Program Interface (API) that uses HTTP requests to GET, PUT, POST and DELETE data. 

Q9. Define virtualization.  

Ans. Virtualization is an abstraction layer that separates physical hardware from the operating system (OS) in order to improve IT resource utilisation and flexibility. 

Q10. What are the benefits provided by virtualization ? 

Ans. Benefits provided by virtualization are: 

  • 1. Cost saving 
  • 2. Dramatic increase in control 
  • 3. Simplified disaster recovery 
  • 4. Business readiness assessment 

Q11. What are the types of virtualization ? 

Ans. Types of virtualization are: 

  • 1. OS virtualization 
  • 2. Application-server virtualization
  • 3. Application virtualization 
  • 4. Administrative virtualization 
  • 5. Network virtualization 
  • 6. Hardware virtualization 
  • 7. Storage virtualization 

Q12. What are the characteristics of virtualization?

Ans. Characteristics of virtualization are : 

  • 1. Partitioning 
  • 2. Isolation 
  • 3. Encapsulation 

Q13. What are the implementation levels of virtualization ? 

Ans. Various implementation levels of virtualization are: 

  • 1. Instruction set architecture level 
  • 2. Hardware abstraction level 
  • 3. Operating system level 
  • 4. Library support level 
  • 5. User-application level  

Q14. What are the tools of virtualization ? 

Ans. Tools of virtualization are:

  • 1. Ganeti 
  • 2. KVM (Kernel-based Virtual Machine) 
  • 3. oVirt 
  • 4. Packer 
  • 5. Vagrant 
  • 6. Xen 

Q15. What are the mechanisms used for virtualization of the system ? 

Ans. Mechanisms used for virtualization of the system are: 

  • 1. Binary translation 
  • 2. Hardware assist 
  • 3. Para virtualization 

Q16. What are the benefits of using SOA? 

Ans. Benefits of using SOA: 

  • 1. Language neutral integration 
  • 2. Component reuse 
  • 3. Organizational agility 
  • 4. Leveraging existing system 

Q17. What are the four HTTP methods used by REST architecture? 

Ans. Four HTTP methods are: 

  • 1. GET method 
  • 2. PUT method 
  • 3. DELETE method 
  • 4. POST method

Q18. Define the types of web services. 

Ans. Two types of web services are: 

  • 1. SOAP web service 
  • 2. REST web service 

Q19. What are the application areas of SOA ? 

Ans. Application areas of SOA: 

  • 1. Armies and airforce
  • 2. Healthcare delivery 
  • 3. Mobile solution apps 

Unit-III: Cloud Architecture, Services and Storage (Short Question)

Q1. What are various cloud deployment model ?

Ans. Various deployment models are:

  • 1. Public cloud
  • 2. Private cloud 
  • 3. Hybrid cloud 
  • 4. Community cloud 

Q2. Define public cloud. 

Ans. The public cloud is a computing service that provides resource pooling, self-service, service accounting, elasticity, and multi-tenancy to manage solutions, deployment, and application security. 

Q3. Define private cloud.

Ans. A private cloud is a cloud computing paradigm in which services are delivered over private infrastructure for the exclusive use of a single organisation. 

Q4. Define hybrid cloud. 

Ans. A hybrid cloud is a blend of public and private clouds that work together. This is the approach in which the consumer offloads non-essential application or information and compute requirements to the public cloud while maintaining control over all critical information and application data. 

Q5. Define community cloud. 

Ans. The community cloud is a cloud computing platform built and governed by a collection of organisations that share the same internet and have the same security policies. 

Q6. What are the types of private cloud ?

Ans. Types of private cloud are: 

  • 1. Shared private cloud 
  • 2. Dedicated private cloud 
  • 3. Dynamic private cloud 

Q7. Define Infrastructure-as-a-Service.  

Ans. Infrastructure-as-a-Service is a model that allocates virtualized computing resources to the user through the internet. 

Q8. What are the advantages of laaS?

Ans. Advantages of laaS are: 

  • 1. Cost saving 
  • 2. Flexibility 
  • 3. Utility service 
  • 4. Dynamic scaling 
  • 5. Multiple tenants 

Q9. What is Platform-as-a-Service? 

Ans. Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) is a type of cloud computing service that provides a platform for clients to develop, run, and manage applications without having to construct and maintain the infrastructure. 

Q10. What are the advantages of PaaS?  

Ans. Advantages of PaaS are: 

  • 1. Simple and convenient for users 
  • 2. Cost effective 
  • 3. Efficiently managing the lifecycle 
  • 4. Efficiency 

Q11. What are the disadvantages of PaaS ?

Ans. Disadvantages of PaaS are: 

  • 1. Developers may not be able to use a full range of conventional tools. 
  • 2. Migration from one PaaS vendor’s application to another PaaS vendor will create some problem.  

Q12. What are the characteristics of PaaS ?

Ans. Characteristics of PaaS are: 

  • 1. Runtime framework 
  • 2. Abstraction 
  • 3. Automation 
  • 4. Cloud services 

Q13. What is Software-as-a-Service ? 

Ans. SaaS (Software-as-a-Service) refers to a programme that is hosted on a distant server and accessible via the internet. An organization’s web-based e-mail service is known as SaaS. 

Q14. What are the advantages of SaaS ?

Ans. Advantages of SaaS are: 

  • 1. Improve productivity 
  • 2. Require low maintenance 
  • 3. Easy to buy  

Q15. What are the challenges in cloud design ?  

Ans. Cloud architectural design challenges are: 

  • 1. Service availability and data lock-in problem. 
  • 2. Data privacy and security concerns. 
  • 3. Unpredictable performance and bottlenecks. 
  • 4. Distributed storage and widespread software bugs. 
  • 5. Cloud scalability, interoperability, and standardization. 

Q16. Define storage.  

Ans. Storage is a process that uses computing technology to save data within a data storage device. 

Q17. What are the types of storage devices ?

Ans. There are two types of storage devices: 

  • 1. Block storage devices: It offers raw storage to the clients. This raw storage is partition to create volumes. 
  • 2. File storage devices: It offers storage to clients in the form of files maintaining its own file systems. 

Q18. Define cloud storage. 

Ans. Cloud storage refers to the online storage of data in the cloud, where data is combined and accessible from numerous scattered and connected resources that compose a cloud.

Q19. What are the types of cloud storage ?

Ans. There are two types of cloud storage: 

  • 1. Unmanaged cloud storage 
  • 2. Managed cloud storage

Q20. Define unmanaged cloud storage. 

Ans. Unmanaged cloud storage means the storage is preconfigured from the customer.

Q21. Define managed cloud storage.

Ans. Managed cloud storage provides on-demand internet storage capacity. This system appears to the user as a raw disc that can be partitioned and formatted. 

Q22. Define Storage-as-a-Service. 

Ans. Storage-as-a-Service is a business concept in which a major firm rents storage space to a smaller organisation or individual.

Q23. What are the advantages of cloud storage ?

Ans. Advantages of cloud storage: 

  • 1. Usability 
  • 2. Bandwidth 
  • 3. Accessibility 
  • 4. Disaster recovery
  • 5. Price savings 

Unit-IV: Resource Management and Security in Cloud

Q1. What is inter-cloud ? 

Ans. Inter-cloud refers to the concept of linked cloud networks, which include public, private, and hybrid clouds. It integrates a variety of technologies to promote cloud network interoperability and portability.  

Q2. What are the types of inter-cloud resource management ?

Ans. Types of inter-cloud resource management are : 

  • 1. Federation cloud: A federation cloud is an inter-cloud in which a group of cloud providers deliberately join their cloud infrastructures in order to share resources.
  • 2. Multi-cloud: A client or service in a multi-cloud uses multiple separate clouds. There is no volunteer interconnection and sharing of cloud service provider infrastructures in a multi-cloud ecosystem. 

Q3. What are the topologies used in inter-cloud architecture ?

Ans. Topologies used in inter-cloud architectures are: 

  • 1. Peer to peer inter-cloud federation 
  • 2. Centralized inter-cloud federation 
  • 3. Multi-cloud Service 
  • 4. Multi-cloud Libraries 

Q4. What is resource provisioning ?

Ans. The selection, deployment, and run-time control of software and hardware resources to provide guaranteed application performance is referred to as resource provisioning. 

Q5. What are the types of resource provisioning ? 

Ans. Types of resource provisioning are: 

  • 1. Statice provisioning: Static provisioning is utilised for applications with known and generally constant workloads. 
  • 2. Dynamic provisioning: Dynamic provisioning is utilised in situations where application demand may alter or vary. 
  • 3. User self-provisioning: User self-provisioning (also known as cloud self-service) is a method of purchasing resources from a cloud provider by filling out a web form, creating a customer account, and paying for resources with a credit card. 

Q6. What are the parameters used for resource provisioning ?  

Ans. Parameters used for resource provisioning are: 

  • 1. Response time 
  • 2. Minimize cost 
  • 3. Revenue maximization 
  • 4. Fault tolerant 
  • 5. Reduced SLA violation 
  • 6. Reduced power consumption

Q7. What are market-oriented techniques ?

Ans. Various market-oriented techniques are: 

  • 1. Aneka 
  • 2. Workflow engine 
  • 3. MetaCDN 
  • 4. Cloud Sim 
  • 5. Resource management  

Q8. What are security challenges related to deployment models ? 

Ans. Security challenges related to deployment models are: 

  • 1. Cloning and resource pooling 
  • 2. Motility of data and data residuals 
  • 3. Elastic perimeter 
  • 4. Shared multi-tenant environment 
  • 5. Unencrypted data 
  • 6. Authentication and identity management 

Q9. What are the security challenges related with service models? 

Ans. Security challenges with the service models are: 

  • 1. Data leakage and consequent problem 
  • 2. Malicious attacks 
  • 3. Backup and storage 
  • 4. Shared technological issues 
  • 5. Service hijacking 
  • 6. VM hopping 
  • 7. VM mobility 
  • 8. VM denial of service

Q10. What are the properties of virtual machines ?

Ans. Properties of virtual machines are: 

  • 1. Efficiency 
  • 2. Resource control
  • 3. Equivalence 

Q11. How can we implement virtual machines ? 

Ans. We can implement virtual machines in two ways: 

  • 1. Process virtual machines 
  • 2. System virtual machines  

Q12. Define LAM. 

Ans. Identity and Access Management (IAM) is a system that secures, maintains, and manages user identities and access entitlements. It ensures that users may only access programmes and resources if they have permission to use them.  

Q13. What are the benefits of IAM ?

Ans. Benefits of IAM are: 

  • 1. Improving user experiences 
  • 2. Enhancing security profiles 
  • 3. Simplifies auditing and reporting 
  • 4. Allows easy access 
  • 5. Increases productivity and reduces IT costs 

Q14. Define the resource provisioning methods. 

Ans. Resource provisioning methods: 

  • 1. Demand driven resource provisioning 
  • 2. Event driven resource provisioning 
  • 3. Popularity driven resource provisioning

Q15. What are cloud security controls ?

Ans. Cloud security controls: 

  • 1. Detective control 
  • 2. Preventive control 
  • 3. Deterrent control 
  • 4. Corrective control  

Q16. Define the objectives of cloud security governance. 

Ans. Objectives of cloud security governance: 

  • 1. Strategic alignment 
  • 2. Value delivery 
  • 3. Risk mitigation 
  • 4. Effective use of resources 
  • 5. Sustained performance 

Q17. Write down the cloud security standards. 

Ans. Cloud security standards: 

  • 1. Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) 
  • 2. Open Virtualization Format (OVF) 
  • 3. ITU-TX.1601 
  • 4. Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCIDSS) 
  • 5. ISO/IEC 27017 Code of practice for information security controls 

Unit-V: Cloud Technologies and Advancements (Short Question)

Q1. Define hadoop.

Ans. Hadoop is a free and open-source software framework for storing data and running applications on commodity hardware clusters. 

Q2. Why do we use hadoop ? 

Ans. We use hadoop for: 

  • 1. Computing power 
  • 2. Fault tolerance 
  • 3. Flexibility 
  • 4. Low cost 
  • 5. Scalability 

Q3. What are the features of hadoop ?

Ans. Features of hadoop are: 

  • 1. Suitable for Big Data Analysis  
  • 2. Scalability
  • 3. Fault Tolerance

Q4. What are the modules of hadoop ?

Ans. Modules of hadoop are:

  • 1. HDES
  • 2. Yarn 
  • 3. MapReduce 
  • 4. Hadoop common 

Q5. What are the advantages of hadoop ?

Ans. Advantages of hadoop are : 

  • 1. Fast
  • 2. Scalable  
  • 3. Cost effective
  • 4. Resilient to failure 

Q6. Define Google App Engine. 

Ans. Google App Engine is a Platform-as-a-connectivity (PaaS) offering that gives Web app developers and businesses access to Google’s scalable hosting and tier-1 Internet connectivity. 

Q7. What are the services provided by Google app engine ? 

Ans. Services provided by Google app engine are: 

  • 1. Datastore 
  • 2. Google accounts 
  • 3. URL Fetch 
  • 4. Mail 
  • 5. Image manipulation 
  • 6. Memcache 
  • 7. Scheduled tasks and task queue

Q8. What are the environments supported by Google app engine ? 

Ans. Environments supported by Google app engine are: 

  • 1. Java runtime environment 
  • 2. Python runtime environment

Q9. What is openstack ?

Ans. Openstack is open source software for deploying and managing a cloud infrastructure-as-a-service (IaaS) platform. 

Q10. What is cloud federation ?

Ans. The unionization of software, infrastructure, and platform services from distant networks that can be accessed by a client via the internet is referred to as cloud federation.  

Q11. Define virtualbox. 

Ans. Virtualbox is free and open-source software that allows you to virtualize the X86 computing architecture. It functions as a hypervisor, generating a virtual machine (VM) in which the user can run another operating system. 

Q12. What are the features of virtualbox ?

Ans. Features of virtualbox are: 

  • 1. Running multiple operating systems simultaneously 
  • 2. Easier software installations 
  • 3. Testing and disaster recovery 
  • 4. Infrastructure consolidation 

Q13. What are the advantages of GAE?

Ans. Advantages of Google App Engine (GAE) are: 

  • 1. Cost saving 
  • 2. Platform independent 
  • 3. Performance and reliability 
  • 4. Easy to use 
  • 5. Scalability 

Q14. What are the components of openstack ? 

Ans. Components of openstack are: 

  • 1. Nova 
  • 2. Swift 
  • 3. Cinder 
  • 4. Neutron 
  • 5. Horizon 
  • 6. Keystone 
  • 7. Glance 
  • 8. Ceilometer 
  • 9. Heat

Q15. What are the benefits of openstack?  

Ans. Benefits of openstack: 

  • 1. Enable rapid innovation 
  • 2. Cuts down time to market 
  • 3. Boots scalability 
  • 4. Resource utilization  

Q16. What are the challenges of openstack?

Ans. Challenges of openstack: 

  • 1. Scarcity of talent
  • 2. Longer to implement 

Q17. What are the features of openstack ?

Ans. Features of openstack are: 

  • 1. Web frontend dashboard 
  • 2. Database-as-a-Service
  •  3. Messaging service 
  • 4. Backups and restore 
  • 5. Disaster recovery 

Q18. What are the four levels of cloud federation ?

Ans. Four levels of cloud federation are: 

  • 1. Permissive 
  • 2. Verified 
  • 3. Encrypted 
  • 4. Trusted 

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