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(Aktu Btech) Object Oriented Programming/System Design Important Unit-5 Object and Classes

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Q1. Write short note on object and classes.

Ans. A. Object: 

  • 1. An Object is an instance of a Class. When a class is defined, no memory is allocated but when it is instantiated (i.e. an object is created) memory is allocated. 
  • 2. When a class is defined, only the specification for the object is defined; no memory or storage is allocated. To use the data and access functions defined in the class, you need to create objects.

B. Classes:

  • 1. A class is a way to bind the data and its associated functions together. It allows the data (and functions) to be hidden, if necessary, from external use. 
  • 2. When defining a class, we are creating a new abstract data type that can be treated like any other built-in data type. 
  • 3. The class declaration describes the type and scope of its members. 
  • 4. The class function definitions describe how the class functions are implemented. 
  • 5. The general form of a class declaration is:
Write short note on object and classes. Object Oriented Programming
  • 6. The class declaration is similar to a struct declaration. The keyword class specifies that what follows is an abstract data of type class_name. 
  • 7. The body of a class is enclosed within braces and terminated by a semicolon. 
  • 8. The class body contains the declaration of variables and functions. These functions and variables are collectively called class members. 
  • 9. The class members that have been declared as private can be accessed only from within the class. 
  • 10. While the public members can be accessed from outside the class also. 
  • 11. The variables declared inside the class are known as data members and the functions are known as member functions.

Q2. Explain private member function. 


  • 1. A private member function can only be called by another function that is a member of its class.
  • 2. Even an object cannot invoke a private function using the dot operator.
  • 3. Consider a class as defined below: 
Explain private member function. Aktu Btech
Explain private member function. Object Oriented Programming
  • 5. However, the function read() can be called by the function update() to update the value of m.
Explain private member function. 

Q3. Explain static data and static function member. 

Ans. Static data: 

  • 1. Static data is data that does not change after being recorded. It is a fixed data set.
  • 2. Experts contrast static data with dynamic data, where dynamic data may change after it is recorded, and has to be continually updated.  

Member function: 

  • 1. A member function of a class is a function that has its definition or its prototype within the class definition like any other variable.
  • 2. It operates on any object of the class of which it is a member, and has access to all the members of a class for that object. 
  • 3. Member functions can be defined within the class definition or separately using scope resolution operator.
  • 4.  Defining a member function within the class definition declares the function inline, even if you do not use the inline specifier.

Q4. Define inheritance. What are the modes of inheritance?

Ans. Inheritance: 

  • 1. The capability of a class to derive properties and characteristics from another class is called Inheritance. 
  • 2. Inheritance is one of the most important features of Object Oriented Programming. 
  • 3. The class that inherits properties from another class is called Sub class or Derived class.
  • 4. The class whose properties are inherited by sub class is called Base Class or Super class. 

Modes of inheritance: 

  • 1. Public mode: 
    • a. If we derive a sub class from a public base class.
    • b. Then the public member of the base class will become public in the derived class and protected members of the base class will become protected in derived class. 
  • 2. Protected mode: 
    • a. If we derive a sub class from a Protected base class.  
    • b. Then both public member and protected members of the base class will become protected in derived class. 
  • 3. Private mode: 
    • a. If we derive a sub class from a Private base class. 
    • b. Then both public member and protected members of the base class will become Private in derived class.

Q5. Write a program in C++ to read in two matrices from the keyboard and compute their sum. 


Write a program in C++ to read in two matrices from the keyboard and compute their sum. Object Oriented Programming
Write a program in C++ to read in two matrices from the keyboard and compute their sum. Aktu Btech

Q6. Describe briefly about the term object.


  • 1. Objects are the basic run-time entities in an object-oriented system. 
  • 2. In the object-oriented programming paradigm object can be a combination of variables, functions, and data structures. 
  • 3. They may represent a person, a place, a bank account, a table of data or any item that the program has to handle. 
  • 4. Programming problem is analyzed in terms of objects and the nature of communication between them. 
  • 5. Program objects should be chosen such that they match closely with the real-world objects. 
  • 6 Objects can interact without having to know details of each other’s data or code. 
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