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Btech Object Oriented Programming/System Design KCS-054/KOE-064 Short Question Pdf

Object Oriented Programming/System Design Short Question Notes from the Unravel B.Tech. AKTU Quantum Book. For effective software development, delve into the concepts of OOPs, inheritance, polymorphism, and encapsulation.

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Unit-I: Introduction (Short Question) Object Oriented Programming

Q1. What are the benefits of object-oriented approaches ?  

Ans. Following are the benefits of object-oriented approach: 

  • a. It facilitates changes in the system at low cost. 
  • b. It promotes the reuse of components.
  • c. It simplifies the problem of integrating components to configure large system. 
  • d. It simplifies the design of distributed systems. 

Q2. What are the elements of object-oriented system ?

Ans. Following are the elements of object-oriented system: 

  • a. Object 
  • b. Attributes
  • c. Behavior 
  • d. Class 
  • e. Methods 
  • f. Message 

Q3. What are the features of object-oriented system? 

Ans. Following are the features of object-oriented system: 

  • 1. Encapsulation 
  • 2. Abstraction 
  • 3. Inheritance 
  • 4. Polymorphism  

Q4. Define the term encapsulation and abstraction. 

Ans. Encapsulation: Information is hidden through the process of encapsulation. It enables for the improvement or modification of an object’s method without affecting other system components.

Abstraction: It involves choosing the appropriate approach and properties to define the object.

Q5. What do you mean by inheritance and polymorphism ? 

Ans. Inheritance: By inheriting the characteristics and/or operations of existing classes, inheritance is a feature that enables the creation of subclasses from an existing class.

Polymorphism: Polymorphism is the capacity to assume a variety of forms. Both operations and objects are covered.

Q6. Define object-oriented technology. 

Ans. The organisation and development of programmes using object-oriented technology (OOT) aims to address problems with traditional programming methods.

Q7. What are the advantages of object-oriented technology ?

Ans. Advantages of object-oriented technology are: 

  • 1. lt allows parallel development. 
  • 2. The modular classes are often reusable. 
  • 3. The coding is easier to maintain. 

Q8. What are the disadvantages of object-oriented technology? 

Ans. Disadvantages of object-oriented technology are: 

  • 1. It is inefficient. 
  • 2. It is scalable. 
  • 3. It causes duplication. 

Q9. Define object identity. 

Ans. A unique internal object identifier, or object Identity, is given to each object when it is created as a property of data in the context of an object data model.

Q10. What do you mean by information hiding?  

Ans. The practise of concealing an object’s or function’s specifics is known as information hiding. The concealment of these specifics produces an abstraction, which lessens the external complexity and simplifies the use of the object or function.

Q11. Which technique is used to implement information hiding. 

Ans. Encapsulation is a technique programmers use to implement information hiding. 

Q12. What are the models of object-oriented languages ?

Ans. Following are the models of object-oriented languages: 

  • 1. Object model 
  • 2. Dynamic model 
  • 3. Functional model

Q13. Define the term actor. 

Ans. An actor is a dynamic object that generates or consumes values to move the data flow graph along. A data flow graph’s inputs and outputs are represented by actors.

Q14. What is object-oriented modeling? 

Ans. A collection of objects that include the stored values of the instance variables present within an object are used in object-oriented modelling (OOM) to generate new objects.

Q15.  What are the steps involved in object-oriented modeling? 

Ans. Following are the steps involved in object-oriented modeling: 

  • 1. System analysis 
  • 2. System design 
  • 3. Object design 
  • 4. Final implementation 

Q16. Define the term link and association. 

Ans. Link: Link defines the relationship between two or more objects and a link is considered as an instance of an association. 

Association: It is a group of links that relates objects from the same classes. 

Q17. What do you mean by UML ?


What is unified markup language ?

Ans. Unified Modeling Language is known as UML. Software blueprints are created using this graphical language. A general-purpose visual modelling language for software system visualization, specification, construction, and documentation is what UML is known as.

Unit-II: Basic Structural Modeling (Short Question)

Q1. What are different types of structural modeling in object oriented system design?

Ans. Following are the types of structural modeling in object oriented system design : 

  • 1. Structural modeling 
  • 2. Behavioural modeling 
  • 3. Architectural modeling

Q2. Define structural modeling.  

Ans. Structural modelling captures a system’s static characteristics. The structural model depicts the system’s framework, which is where all other components are housed.

Q3. Define Behavioral Model.

Ans. The system’s interaction is described by the behavioral model. It depicts how the structural diagrams interact with one another. Behavioral modelling demonstrates the system’s dynamic nature.

Q4. What does an architectural model represent ? 

Ans. An architectural model depicts the system’s overall structure. It includes both the system’s structural and behavioral components.

Q5. Name the diagrams used in architectural modeling.

Ans. Diagrams that give descriptions of the physical information about a system in architectural modeling are deployment diagrams and component diagrams. 

Q6. Define deployment diagrams and component diagram.  

Ans. Deployment diagrams: Deployment diagrams show the physical relationship between hardware and software in a system. 

Component diagrams: Component diagrams show the software components of a system and their relationships.   

Q7. What is a component ? 

Ans. A component is a real, physical, swappable portion of a system that provides realisation of a set of interfaces and packages implementation.

Q8. Define the term interface.  

Ans. A service of a class or component is specified by a collection of operations known as an interface. The symbol for it is a circle.

Q9. What are the different types of notation used in UML.

Ans. Following are the different types of notation used in UML:

  • 1.  Dependency Notation 
  • 2. Association notation 
  • 3. Generalization notation 
  • 4. Extensibility notation

Q10. Define association and generalization notation.

Ans. Association Notation: The term “association” refers to the connections between the elements in a UML diagram. It indicates the number of components involved in an interaction.

Generalization notation: The object-oriented world’s inheritance connection is described by generalisation. It’s a relationship between a parent and child.

Q11. What are the mechanism that provide extensibility feature?

Ans. Following mechanisms to provide extensibility features: 

  • i. Stereotypes (Represents new elements) 
  • ii. Tagged values Represents new attributes) 
  • iii. Constraints (Represents the boundaries).

Q12. Which notation is used to enhance the power of a language. 

Ans. Extensibility notation is used to enhance the power of a language.  

Q13. Define class diagram. 

Ans. The static view of an application is represented by a class diagram, which is a static diagram. Class diagrams are used for creating executable software application code as well as for visualizing, explaining, and documenting various system components.

Q14. Define object diagram. 

Ans. An instance of a class diagram is represented by an object diagram. Object diagrams show a system’s static view, which is a snapshot of the system at a specific time.

Q15. What is a collaboration diagram ?

Ans. An depiction of the connections and interactions between software objects in the Unified Modeling Language is a collaboration diagram, also known as a communication diagram (UML).

Q16. What are the various terms used in collaboration diagram 7

Ans. Various terms used in collaboration diagram are: 

  • 1. Object 
  • 2. Actor 
  • 3. Link 
  • 4. Message

Q17. Define sequence diagram.

Ans. Sequence diagrams depict interactions between classes as a time-based message exchange. Another name for them is event diagrams. It displays and verifies different runtime scenarios.  

Q18. What are package diagrams ?  

Ans. Package diagrams are structural diagrams that display how different model pieces are arranged and organized into packages. 

Q19. Define activity diagram.

Ans. Flowcharts that depict system activities are called activity diagrams. The starting state is represented by the two special states in an activity diagram.

Q20. What is activity diagram ? Explain with suitable example. 

Ans. 1. An activity diagram is a flowchart that shows activities performed by a system. 

2. The two special states shown in an activity diagram are the Initial State (Start Point) and Final State (End Point).

3. Initial State or Start Point: A small filled circle followed by an arrow represents the initial action state or the start point for any activity diagram.

What is activity diagram ? Explain with suitable example. Object Oriented Programming/System Design

4. Final State or End Point: An arrow pointing to a filled circle nested inside another circle represents the final action state.

What is activity diagram ? Explain with suitable example. 

Q21. Discuss the synchronization of concurrent activities.


  • 1. Occasionally, one thing must carry out two or more tasks at once.
  • 2. The object must finish both activities in order to move on to the next state; the internal phases of the activities are not synced.
  • 3. As an illustration, a cash dispenser dispenses cash and gives the user’s card back after a transaction. The user may take the cash and the card in any sequence, or even simultaneously, but the machine must not reset itself until the user takes both.

Q22. What is nested state diagram ? Explain with suitable example. 

Ans. 1. The huge and complex problem cannot be adequately described by a standard state diagram, hence the complex system is modelled using stacked state diagrams.

2. The nested state diagram is the concept of advanced state modeling. 

For example:

What is nested state diagram ? Explain with suitable example.
  • 1. The Carlransmission state diagram has three states: reverse, neutral, and forward.
  • 2. Among these three states, the forward state has the First, Second, and Third nested states.
  • 3. Selecting N would move to the neutral state from any nested state of the Forward gear composite state.
  • 4. If you choose F when in a neutral condition, you would move to the forward state.
  • 5. However, the control is in the First state in this case, which is the First nested state in the Forward contour by default.
  • 6. The Forward in this case is merely an idealised condition.
  • 7. All three of the nested states share the event Stop.

Q23. What do you mean by candidate keys in object modeling ? 

Ans. 1. A candidate key is a super key without any redundant attributes.

2. Candidate keys are chosen from the collection of super keys, with the only restriction being that they must not contain any redundant attributes.

Unit-III: Object Oriented Analysis (Short Question)

Q1. What is an object-oriented analysis ?  

Ans. Object-Oriented Analysis (OOA) is a process for determining software engineering requirements and creating software specifications in terms of the object model, which consists of interconnected objects, of a software system.

Q2. What are the primary task in object-oriented analysis ?

Ans. The primary tasks in object-oriented analysis (O0A) are : 

  • a. Identifying objects 
  • b. Organizing the objects by creating object model diagram.
  • c. Defining the internals of the objects, or object attributes. 
  • d. Defining the behavior of the objects, i.e., object actions.
  • e. Describing how the objects interact.

Q3. What are the different phases of object-oriented design?

Ans. Object design includes the following phases:

  • a. Object identification. 
  • b. Object representation, i.e., construction of design models. 
  • c. Classification of operations. 
  • d. Algorithm design.
  • e. Design of relationships. 
  • f. Implementation of control for external interactions. 

Q4. What is design optimization ? 

Ans. Engineering design methodology known as “design optimisation” uses a mathematical definition of a design problem to enable choosing the best design from several possibilities.

Q5. Differentiate between early and late binding with an example. 


S.No.Early bindingLate binding is a compile-time process.It is a run-time process.
2.The method definition and method call are linked during the compile time. The method definition and method call are linked during the run time.

Q6. What are the stages used in design optimization ?  

Ans. Design optimization involves the following stages: 

  • a. Vanables 
  • b. Objective 
  • c. Constraints 
  • d. Feasibility 

Q7. What is a documentation?

Ans. Documentation is a step in the software development process that captures how the software was created. Any non-trivial software system requires documentation of the design choices in order to be shared with others.

Q8. What is structured analysis and design phase ?

Ans. The diagrammatic notation known as Structured Analysis and Structured Design (SASD) was created to aid with system comprehension. Enhancing quality and lowering the likelihood of system failure are the main objectives of SA/SD.

Q9. What are the phases of SAVSD?  

Ans. SA/SD involves two phases: 

  • a. Analysis Phase: It uses Data Flow Diagram, Data Dictionary, State Transition diagram and ER diagram. 
  • b. Design Phase: It uses Structure Chart and Pseudo Code. 

Q10. Define jackson system development.

Ans. A system development approach called Jackson System Development (JSD) provides a framework into which more specific methodologies can be included while still covering the software life cycle directly.

Q11. What are the phases of JSD ?

Ans. Following are the phases of JSD: 

  • 1. Modeling phase 
  • 2. Specification phase 
  • 3. Implementation phase 

Q12. What are the independent dimensions used for classifying inheritance ?  

Ans. There are three independent dimensions for classifying inheritance mechanisms:

  • 1. Static or dynamic 
  • 2. Implicit or explicit 
  • 3. Per object or per group. 

Q13. Define formal and actual parameters. 

Ans. Formal parameter: A variable and its type as they appear in the prototype of the function or method. 

Actual parameter: A formal parameter’s matching variable or expression that appears in a function or method call in the calling environment.

Unit-IV: C++ Basics & Functions (Short Question)

Q1. Define the term namespace and identifiers.

Ans. Namespace: Namespace defines a scope for the identifiers that are used in a program.

Identifiers: Identifiers are the names that a programmer gives to variables, functions, arrays, classes, etc.

Q2. What is a constants ?

Ans. Constants are fixed values that remain the same while a programme is running. They comprise strings, floating point numbers, characters, and integers.

Q3. Define the term enumerated and variables.

Ans. Enumerated:The list of all names that will be acceptable values for the type is defined by an enum specifier. Members refers to these acceptable values.

Variables: A variable is a symbolic term that can have several values assigned to it. Several locations in the computer’s memory are designated as storage for variables.

Q4. What are the different operators used in C++?

Ans. Different operators used in C++ are:

  • 1. Memory management operator
  • 2. Manipulators 
  • 3. Typecast operators

Q5. What do you mean by typecast?

Ans. Converting an expression of a given type into another type is known as type-casting.

Q6. What are the different types of typecast?

Ans. Different types of typecast are:

  • 1. Implicit typecast 
  • 2. Explicit typecast 
  • 3. Dynamic cast 

Q7. Define switch statement. 

Ans. This is an example of a multiple-branching statement, in which control is sent to one of numerous potential places in response to a condition.

Q8. Define do-while loop. 

Ans. The do-while is an exit-controlled loop. Based on a condition, the control is transferred back to a particular point in the program. 

Q9. Define while and for statement.

Ans. The while statement: This is also a loop structure, but is an entry-controlled one. 

The for statement: The for is an entry-controlled loop and is used when an action is to be repeated for a predetermined number of times.

Q10. What do you mean by keywords ?

Ans. The compiler is aware of the meaning of the reserved terms, which are called keywords. The kind of entity is specified using it. There are only letters in it. Just lowercase letters are used. There cannot be any special characters in it.

Q11. What is an inline function ?  

Ans. When a function is invoked, it expands in line and is known as an inline function. When an inline function is invoked, its entire body of code is added or replaced at the inline function call location.

Q12. What is a default argument?

Ans. If the function caller fails to supply a value for the argument with a default value, the compiler will automatically assign the value specified in the default argument provided in the function declaration.

Q13. Define virtual function.

Ans. A member function that is declared in a base class and redefined (Overridden) by a derived class is known as a virtual function.

Unit-V: Object and Classes (Short Question)

Q1. Define the term object and classes. 

Ans. Object: An instance of a Class exists in an object. No memory is allocated when a class is specified, but it is allocated when it is instantiated (i.e., when an object is formed).

Classes: A class is a means of connecting the data and the methods that go with it. It enables the data (and functionalities) to be concealed from external use, if necessary.

Q2. What is a member function ? 

Ans. A member function of a class is a function that, like any other variable, has its definition or prototype within the class declaration.

Q3. Define constructor.

Ans. A constructor is a member function of a class which initializes objects of a class. ln C++, Constructor is automatically called when object (instance of class) create. It is special member function of the class. 

Q4. What are the different types of constructors? 

Ans. Different types of constructor are:

  • 1. Default constructor 
  • 2. Parameterized constructor 
  • 3. Copy constructor 

Q5. Define default constructor and copy constructor  

Ans. Default constructor: Default constructor is the constructor which doesn’t take any argument. It has no parameters. 

Copy constructor: A copy constructor is a member function which initializes an object using another object of the same class.

Q6. What is a destructor function ?

Ans. Destructor is a member function which destructs or deletes an object. Following is the Syntax of destructor: constructor-name(); 

Q7. Define operator overloading. 

Ans. Operator overloading is a compile-time polymorphism in which the operator is overloaded to provide the special meaning to the user defined data type. Operator overloading is used to overload or redefines most of the operators available in C++.

Q8. What is inheritance ?

Ans. The capability of a class to derive properties and characteristic8 from another class is called Inheritance.  

Q9. What are the types of inheritance ? 

Ans. Types of inheritance are : 

  • 1. Single inheritance 
  • 2. Multiple inheritance 
  • 3. Multilevel inheritance 
  • 4. Hybrid inheritance  

Q10. What are the modes of inheritance? 

Ans. Following are the modes of inheritance : 

  • 1. Public modes 
  • 2. Private modes 
  • 3. Protected modes

Q11. What is the use of virtual base classes ?

Ans. In order to avoid several “instances” of a particular class appearing in an inheritance hierarchy when employing multiple inheritances, virtual base classes are utilised in virtual inheritance.

Q12. What are the types of polymorphism ?

Ans. There are two types of polymorphism: 

  • 1. Compile-time polymorphism 
  • 2. Run-time polymorphism

Q13. What is a pointer ? 

Ans. Addresses are symbolically represented by pointers. They give programmes the ability to generate and manipulate dynamic data structures in addition to simulating call-by-reference.

Q14. Define pure virtual function. 

Ans. A member function of a base class that is a pure virtual function must have its definition in the derived class because else the derived class will likewise become abstract.

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