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Air and Noise Pollution Control Aktu Short Question KCE-057 Btech

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Unit-I: Air Pollution (Short Question)

Q1. Define air pollution.

Ans. Air pollution is defined as the presence or introduction of one or more contaminants into the air that are harmful to humans.

Q2. What are the composition of gases in air ?

Ans. Composition of atmospheric air : 

N2 = 78%, O2 = 21.93%, Ar = 0.93%, CO2 = 0.03%, etc.

Q3. Discuss in short structure of atmosphere.


Discuss in short structure of atmosphere. Air and Noise Pollution Control

Q4. What is the green house effect ?

Ans. The green house effect is a natural process that raises the temperature of the Earth’s surface. When the Sun’s energy reaches the Earth’s atmosphere, some of it is reflected back into space, while the rest is absorbed and re-radiated by greenhouse gases such as water vapour, CO2, CH4, nitrous oxide, O3, and some synthetic chemicals (e,g., CFCs).

Q5. What are the sources of air pollution ?

Ans. Mainly there are two sources of air pollution:

i. Natural sources             ii. Man-made sources

Q6. Write down the classification of pollutants.

Ans. Following are the various types of pollutants:

i. Degradable.                  ii. Slowly degradable.

iii. Non-degradable 

Q7. What do you mean by acid rain ?

Ans. Acid rain, also known as acid deposition, refers to any type of precipitation with acidic components, such as sulphuric or nitric acid, that falls to the ground from the atmosphere in wet or dry forms.

Q8. Define the term smog.

Ans. Smog is a type of air pollution that was named after the combination of smoke and fog in the air.

Q9. What are the effects of air pollution on atmosphere ?

Ans. Following are the effects of air pollution on atmosphere:

  • i. Temperature increases have been observed in extreme industries, motor vehicles, heat and gases emitted by AC, and densely populated urban areas. As the temperature rises, it creates a heat island.
  • ii. When there is a lot of smoke and dust in the sky, the heat from the sun is reflected back into space by the smoke and dust. As a result, the temperature drops, increasing the risk of snowfall.

Q10. What are the effects of air pollutants on human ?

Ans. Impact on Human : Many diseases are exacerbated by air pollution, including asthma, eye irritation, headaches, dizziness, and heart disease.

Q11. What are the effects of air pollutants on animal ?

Ans. Impact on Animal : When acid rain forms in the atmosphere, it destroys aquatic life such as fish. It has the potential to cause skin cancer in wildlife.

Q12. What are the effects of acid rain on plants ?

Ans. Impact on Plants : Plant leaves are destroyed by acid rain, and ozone prevents plant growth.

Unit-II: Chemistry and Dispersion of Air Pollution (Short Question)

Q1. How air pollution occurs ?

Ans. When certain gases and particles accumulate in the atmosphere to such levels that they can harm our health, causing breathing and respiratory problems, and even resulting in premature death, as well as harming the environment around us, this is referred to as air pollution.

Q2. Why temperature inversion is necessary ?

Ans. Temperature inversions are significant because they reduce vertical pollution dispersion and frequently trap pollution near the surface, where we live.

Q3. Define atmospheric stability.

Ans. Atmospheric stability is related to how air parcels behave after being moved vertically from their initial positions.

Q4. What are the types of atmospheric stability ?

Ans. There are three types atmospheric stability:

  • i. Positive Stability: It implies that displaced air parcels will return to their original position, which is associated with high pollution.
  • ii. Neutral Stability: A displaced air parcel will remain in its new position if it is stable; this is associated with moderate pollution.
  • iii. Negative Stability or Instability: It means that a displaced air parcel will continue to accelerate away from its rest position; low pollution is associated with this.

Q5. How does temperature affect air quality ?


  • i. Temperature inversion has an impact on air pollution because it alters the dynamics of air movement.
  • ii. Because warm air is less dense and thus more buoyant than cooler air above it, it rises in the atmosphere.

This smothering effect traps pollutants in the air and allows their concentrations to rise.

Q6. How does air pollution affect our health ?

Ans. Pollution affect our health in the following ways:

  • i. Respiratory diseases.
  • ii. Cardiovascular damage.
  • iii. Fatigue, headaches and anxiety.
  • iv. Irritation of the eyes, nose and throat.
  • v. Damage to reproductive organs. 
  • vi. Harm to the liver, spleen and blood.

Q7. Define the mechanical turbulence.


  • i. Wind velocity fluctuation at random (speed and direction).
  • ii. Wind is zero at the ground surface and increases with elevation to near the pressure gradient’s speed.
  • iii. Turbulence increases with increasing mean wind speed.
  • iv. The greater the mechanical turbulence, the easier it is to disperse and spread the pollutants in the atmosphere.

Q8. Define the thermal turbulence.

Ans. i. Differences in air circulation during the day and at night.

ii. On clear nights, when the ground radiates heat to the cold night sky and air above it, causing a sinking density current.

Q9. What are the effects of wind on air pollution ?

Ans. Following are the effects of wind on air pollution:

  • i. Pollutants are diffused by wind by stretching them along the wind direction.
  • ii. Wind speed increases turbulence and, as a result, vertical and horizontal diffusion.
  • iii. Wind direction changes are also important because they cause sinuous plumes.
  • iv. Low wind conditions have the greatest potential for pollution because horizontal transport and turbulent diffusion are both reduced.

Q10. Define the mixing depth.

Ans. i. The mixing depth is the vertical distance between the Earth’s surface and the height to which convectional movements extend.

ii. In general, the deeper the mixing, the better the air quality.

Q11. What are the classes of air quality model ?

Ans. Classes of Air Quality Model: There are four types of air quality modelling procedures: Gaussian, numerical, statistical or empirical, and physical.

Q12. What are the uses of Gaussian model ?

Ans. The most widely used techniques for estimating the impact of nonreactive pollutants are Gaussian models.

Q13. What are the plume types ? 

Ans. Following are the types of plumes:

  • i. Looping plume.
  • ii. Neutral plume.
  • iii. Coning plume.
  • iv. Fanning plume.
  • v. Lofting plume.
  • vi. Fumigating plume.
  • vii. Trapping plume.

Q14. Discuss the looping plumes.


  • i. Significant convective turbulence.
  • ii. Superadiabatic lapse rate, implying significant instabilities.
  • iii. Characterized by clear daytime conditions, strong solar heating, and light winds.
  • iv. A high probability of sporadic high concentrations at ground level near the stack.
  • v. Occurs when the atmosphere is unstable.

Q15. Discuss the fanning plume.


  • i. Occurs when the lapse rate is very low.
  • ii. Significant inversion at a significant height above the stack.
  • iii. Extremely stable environment.
  • iv. Minor turbulence.
  • v. If the plume density is similar to that of the air, it will travel downwind at roughly the same elevation.

Unit-III: Air Pollution Control (Short Question)

Q1. Write short note on air quality measurement.

Ans. Following are the ambient air quality measurement and their standard:

  • 1. The first Indian emission regulations were enacted in 1989. Furthermore, in 1992 and 1991, petrol and diesel vehicles quickly replaced these regulations.
  • 2. India has been implementing European emission and fuel regulations for light and heavy duty vehicles since 2000.
  • 3. Automobile emissions India is working on two reports from the Planning Commission’s expert committee for auto-fuel policy, as well as auto fuel vision and policy 2025.

Q2. Define the stack sampling of air pollutants.

Ans. i. To determine the techniques to be used for removing pollution from gaseous emissions from industries, automobiles, and vehicles, among others.

ii. The most important task is to collect a sample of the petrol emissions at the source. This collection of samples is also known as pollutant stack sampling.

Q3. Write short note on sampling study planning.

Ans. For the stack sampling, proper planning is required. The proper survey is done before planning. For the planning following points should be considered:

  • i. To determine the cycle operation, the planner should be familiar with the process and operation.
  • ii. All sampling methods should be well understood.
  • iii. Sample time because some samples change cyclically.
  • iv. Sample quantity required.
  • v. Before taking the sample, the site should be thoroughly surveyed because the source point must be clearly identified.

Q4. Discuss the selection of sampling location of air pollutant. 


  • i. The sampling site is chosen on an individual basis and requires extensive field experience.
  • ii. The sampling point should be as far away from any disturbing influences as possible, such as elbows, bends, transition pieces, baffles, or obstructions.
  • iii. Researchers discovered that the sampling point should be 5 to 10 times the diameter downstream of any obstructions and 3 to 5 times the diameter upstream of similar disturbance.

Q5. List the major equipments used to control air pollution.

Ans. Following are the major equipments used to control the air pollution:

i. Cyclones.                       ii. Scrubbers.

iii. Bag house filters          iv. Electro-static precipitators.

v. Gravity settling chamber.

Q6. Write note on gravity settling chamber.


  • i. It has a cylindrical body with multiple dust hoppers.
  • ii. The contaminated air enters the chamber from one end.
  • iii. During this process, the dense particles in the air settled into the hoppers, while clean air escaped from the other end.
  • iv. The gravity phenomenon is at the heart of this technique.

Q7. Write note on scrubbers.


  • i. Scrubbers are used to remove pollutants from the air.
  • ii. Polluted air is passed through a chamber in this device.
  • iii. Water is sprayed into the air in this chamber.
  • iv. Particles are wetted and removed from the atmosphere.
  • v. Separating from ambient air is a very efficient process.

Q8. What are the advantages of bag house filters ?


  • i. Versatile and adaptable to a wide range of applications.
  • ii. Very high for collection and removal of very small particles.
  • iii. Cost-effective when properly designed and maintained.
  • iv. Modular design for convenient assembly.

Q9. Write down the types of scrubbers.

Ans. Following are the types of scrubbers:

i. Spray towers.                      ii. Cyclone spray chambers.

iii. Venturi scrubbers.             iv. Orifice scrubbers.

v. Impingement scrubbers.    vi. Packed bed scrubbers.

vii. Dry scrubbers.

Unit-IV: Control of Gaseous Contaminants (Short Question)

Q1. Write short note on absorption units.

Ans. i. Absorption units work on the principle of transfer of the pollutants from the gas phase to the liquid phase.

In other words, the pollutants from the dirty gas are absorbed in the liquid that allows the gas to pass through these units. Such absorption takes place by diffusion as well as dissolution.

Q2. Write a note on adsorption units.

Ans. i. Adsorption units use adsorbents like activated carbon, molecular sieves (dehydrated zeolites, i.e., alkali or metal silicates), activated alumina, silica, etc.

ii. In adsorption units, the dirty gases are made to pass through the beds of such adsorbent materials, wherein the pollutants are effectively caught and removed.

iii. Activated carbon beds can very effectively catch hydrocarbons, H2S,and SO2.

Q3. What are the classifications of adsorbent ?

Ans. Potential adsorbent can be classified three groups:

  • i. Non polar solids – where the adsorption is mainly physical e.g., activated carbon.
  • ii. Polar sides – where the adsorption is chemical and no change in the chemical structure of the molecules or the surface occurs e.g., silica and aluminium oxides. These materials can adsorb both polar and nonpolar molecules, but prefer polar molecules.
  • iii. Chemical Adsorbing surfaces that adsorb molecules and then release them after a reaction, which can be catalytic, leaving the surface unchanged, or non catalytic, requiring surface atom replacement.

Q4. Discuss activated carbon.

Ans. i. Activated carbon is the most widely used adsorbent among the various ones mentioned above because it has a large surface area per unit weight or volume of solid.

ii. Activated carbon is the residue left over after different carbonaceous materials, such as coal, nuts, wood, paper mill sludge, and petroleum sludge, have been dried, carbonized, and activated.

iii. Activated carbon has less selectivity than other, more polar adsorbents when it comes to adsorbing molecules or organic substances.

Q5. What are the characteristics of adsorbents ?

Ans. i. Some of the important parameters far characteristics of adsorbents are particle size, surface area, pore size, pore volume and pore volume distribution, density, adsorption capacity, iodine number and molasses number, hardness and abrasion resistance.

ii. The activity or relativity for a standard vapour can be used to gauge the total adsorptive capacity of a sample of activated carbon or any other adsorbent.

Q6. What are the applications of adsorption for control of gaseous and odour emission at source ?

Ans. Following are the application of adsorption process:

  • i. Vapour Recovery in Process Industries.
  • ii. Deodorization of Odours Emissions.
  • iii. Adsorption of H2S and carbon disulphide (CS2) from waste gases of viscous production plants.
  • iv. Adsorption of sulphur containing gases.

Q7. Write down the effects of sulphur dioxide (SO2) ?

Ans. Sulphur dioxide found in the air produces following effects:

  • i. Irritates eyes, nose, throat.
  • ii. Damages lungs when inhaled.

Q8. What are the effects of nitrogen (NO2) ?

Ans. i. When inhaled, nitrogen dioxide becomes a significant air pollutant which may induce pulmonary edoema (deposit of excessive fluid in the lungs) (accumulation of excessive fluid in the lungs).

ii. It causes acid rain which destroying fish and plant life in lakes, damaging surface of building etc.

iii. It also contributes to photochemical smog.

Q9. What are the effects of carbon mono-oxide (CO) emission on human health ?

Ans. Following are the effects of carbon mono-oxides emission on human health:

  • i. The most frequent cause of poisoning that results in death worldwide is carbon monoxide.
  • ii. Carbon monoxide exposures can cause headaches, dizziness, heart and central nervous system toxicity, severe effects on a pregnant woman’s body, and headaches.
  • iii. Problems with getting oxygen supplied to some body parts which may be life-threatening.

Q10. Write down the effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

Ans. Following are the effect of VOCs:

  • i. Certain aromatic substances, including benzene, toluene, and xylene, have been linked to leukemia and are probable carcinogens.
  • ii. Contribute to ill building syndrome indoors.
  • iii. As facilitators in ozone formation, VOCs may indirectly contribute to respiratory problems and other ozone-related problems.

Q11. What are the effects of some (O3) as an air pollutant ?

Ans. Following are the effects of ozone:

  • i. The tropospheric ozone can harm people, animals, and the environment in the following ways.
  • ii. Respiratory system irritation that results in coughing, throat inflammation, and a strange feeling in the chest.
  • iii. Impaired lung function, which hurts breathing and aggravates asthma.

Q12. What are the reason of automobiles pollution in India ?

Ans. Following are the reasons of automobile pollution:

  • i. Continuous increase in means of transportation in India.
  • ii. Use of more vehicles in cities due to population growth.
  • iii. Dependency on diesel and petrol engine only as fuel.
  • iv. Moving old vehicles on the road freely.

Q13. What are the measures to control the automobile pollution ?

Ans. There are following measures to control the automobile pollution:

  • i. Improvement in technology of manufacturing vehicles.
  • ii. Proper maintenance of the roads in the cities should be made and flyovers should be built.
  • iii. Only use gasoline in gasoline engines.
  • iv. Oil should be changed on a regular basis.
  • v. A high-quality lubricant should be used.

Q14. Which Euro standard is currently in use in India ?

Ans. Euro VI – since 1stApril 2020.

Unit-V: Noise Pollution (Short Question)

Q1. Define noise pollution.

Ans. The undesired unpleasant sound that causes discomfort for all living beings is known as noise pollution.

Q2. List out the sources of noise pollution.

Ans. Industrial noise, transport noise and neighborhood noise are the source of noise.

Q3. What are the control measures of noise pollution ?

Ans. Source control, transmission path intervention, receptors control, oiling, etc., are the control measures of noise pollution.

Q4. What are the effects of noise pollution ?

Ans. The impacts of noise pollution are:

  • i. Hearing capability.
  • ii. General health.
  • iii. In communication.

Q5. What is Echo ?

Ans. A sound that reflected from a surface to the listener’s ear is called echo.

Q6. Explain ‘Intensity of Sound’.

Ans. The rate of sound per unit area is called intensity of sound. Intensity of sound is measured in decibel (dB) (dB). Human ears can detect sound frequencies ranging from 20 to 20,000 hertz. More than a certain level of sound can cause hearing loss.

Q7. What are psychological effects of air pollution ?

Ans. Psychological Effects:

  • i. High noise pollution affects the proper sleep of everybody which will be one of the cause of insomnia. It impacts the emotional balance of humans.
  • ii. It also impacts working skills and arouses the fatigue in short period of time.
  • iii. On occasion, it will result in depression because the person is not using his mind or positive sense in a healthy way.

Q8. Discuss degree of noise.

Ans. Following are the various degrees of noise:

  • i. Painful : 120 – 140 dB
  • ii. Extremely Loud : 90 dB
  • iii. Very Loud : 60 – 80 dB
  • iv. Moderate : 40 – 50 dB
  • v. Faint : 30 dB

Q9. Define the power of sound.

Ans. i. The power of sound (W) is define as the rate of accomplishing work by a travelling sound wave in the direction of the propagation of the wave.

ii. A sound wave’s power, which is measured in Watts in SI units, is the amount of energy it transmits in the direction of propagation.

Q10. What are the effects of noise pollution on human health ?

Ans. Following are the effects of noise pollution on human health:

  • i. Noise pollution causes many mental, physical and physiological diseases in human beings and animals.
  • ii. The health impacts of noise include anxiety, tension, and, in extreme circumstances, fear.
  • iii. Physiological manifestations include headaches, irritability and nervousness, fatigue, and a decrease in work efficiency.

Q11. How to control and prevent the noise pollution ?

Ans. Control and prevention of Noise Pollution:

Noise pollution invites many kind of physical and mental depression. It is compulsory to check them. Many suitable step must be taken to check them:

  • i. People should be aware of it.
  • ii. Vehicles and generators should have silencers.
  • iii. We should listen to music and TV in low volume.
  • iv. Generators and motors should have sound proofing.

Q12. Write down the noise control equipments.

Ans. Following are the noise control equipments:

  • i. Fan silencers.
  • ii. Sound enclosures.
  • iii. Industrial process silencers.
  • iv. Acoustic building ventilation systems.

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