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(Aktu Btech) Air and Noise Pollution Control Important Unit-1 Air Pollution

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Q1. Explain the sources of man-made air pollution.

Ans. Sources of Man-made Pollution: 

  • 1. Transportation: 
    • i. Transportation is a major source of air pollutants.
    • ii. Automobiles are most likely the single largest source of pollutants such hydrocarbons, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide.
    • iii. Lead, benzene, arsenic, aldehydes, sulphates, particulate matter, and secondary ozone formation are among the other dangerous emissions. 
    • iv. Petrol has a lead content of 4g/L, which is higher than the permitted levels in other parts of the world.
    • v. In recent years, the national vehicle population has grown significantly. 
  • 2. Industrial Processes:
    • i. Major industries in India are located near in the large cities. 
    • ii. Several industries are located near residential areas, and any pollutants generated by the industries are scattered and eventually deposited in the residential areas, having major consequences for the people’ health. 
    • iii. Typical examples of industrial emissions include sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), and volatile organic compounds (VOC) and particulate matter. 
    • iv. The majority of emissions come from industrial processes like metallurgical plants and smelters, chemical plants and petroleum refineries, cement production, fertilizer and synthetic rubber production, and pulp and paper milling.
    • v. Heavy metals (lead, mercury, cadmium, etc.) are emitted from smelters, brass works and secondary lead plants and coal combustion.
  • 3. Industrial and Non-industrial Fugitive Processes:
    • i. Process fugitive particles don’t come out of a defined place, like a stack.
    • ii. Industrial fugitive dust emissions come from wind erosion of storage piles and unpaved highways.
    • iii. Operations associated to the industry, such as those involved in loading, moving, and handling of materials, produce fugitive emissions. 
    • iv. Pollutants, primarily methane, are emitted fugitively during the coal mining, transportation, and storage processes.
    • v. When fuels like gasoline and natural gas escape from storage tanks or are moved from one tank to another, volatile hydrocarbons evaporate.
    • vi. The traffic entrainment of dust from public paved and unpaved roads, agricultural activities, construction, and fires are the main causes of non-industrial fugitive emissions. 
  • 4. The Energy Production:
    • i. The majority of the energy used in India is produced by burning carbon-based fuels like coal, petroleum, and wood.
    • ii. Almost 90% of the rural population uses wood fuel as their primary energy source. 
    • iii. Around 31% of energy is used in the productive sector, 52% in the residential sector, and 11% in the transportation sector. 
  • 5. Waste Management: 
    • i. The treatment of noxious wastes is a major source of air pollution.
    • ii. Dump burning reduces waste volume and eliminates dangerous organic materials, but it also produces enormous amounts of particulate matter, which includes unburned trash and unpleasant odours. 
    • iii. Burning waste can release large volumes of hazardous chemicals into the air, especially if the waste is composed of industrial chemicals, tyres, and petroleum-based wastes. 
    • iv. In addition, when household, medical, and industrial waste is burned improperly, highly harmful emissions of particulate matter, such as dioxins, hydrochloric acid, and heavy metals, can occur. 
    • v. Burning of wastes in residential areas also contributes to the emissions.
  • 6. Agricultural Activities:
    • i. India’s economy depends heavily on agriculture, and pollution is emitted from a variety of sources. 
    • ii. A significant source of hydrocarbons and particulate pollution is burning crop residue. 
    • iii. Livestock emit methane and ammonia. Savanna burning emits large amounts of carbon monoxide (CO) and substantial amounts of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and methane (CH4). 
    • iv. Manure management and enteric fermentation emit methane.
    • v. Little amounts of pollution are also produced by dusting, using herbicides, and spraying pesticides on the fields.  

Q2. Discuss the various measures to monitoring and controls of air pollution.

Ans. Measures to Monitoring and Controls of Air Pollution: By applying the guidelines below, you may safeguard the environment and life by preventing air pollution. It can be prevented by a little awareness and responsibilities:

  • 1. As opposed to clear-cutting forests, we should encourage individuals to grow new trees.
  • 2. Industrial chimneys should be elevated, and purification facilities should be installed up.
  • 3. By using vehicles in groups, we can eliminate the pollution and fuel they produce.
  • 4. Promoting the use of public transportation in place of private cars
  • 5. Industries should properly dispose of their waste.
  • 6. We should concentrate on fuel that is sulphur- and lead-free.
  • 7. Industrial facilities ought to be built far from people.
  • 8. For short-distance or non-urgent tasks, walk or ride a bike.
  • 9. We need to take action against the smoke- and gas-emitting cars.
  • 10. A new technique needs to be used to reduce gaseous reflection.
  • 11. Pollution-free cooking tools like electric heaters and induction cookers should be utilised when preparing food.
  • 12. To help reduce carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions, catalytic converters should be employed. 
  • 13. Every industry should be required to limit emission rates to allowable levels.
  • 14. It must become mandatory to include air pollution control devices in plant layout designs.
  • 15. To determine the emission levels, the atmosphere should be continuously monitored for pollutants. 
  • 16. We should plant trees near our houses because they absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen (O2) which is necessary to living beings. 

Q3. Discuss the classification of air pollutants.

Ans. Classification of Air Pollutants:

  • i. Today in India, air pollution is a serious problem. 
  • ii. It is produced for a variety of reasons, including the burning of wood, the burning of biological materials, the emission of cars, and the dangerous smoke from industrial operations.
  • iii. The factors which cause air pollution are called air pollutants. These are of three types:
Discuss the classification of air pollutants. Air and Noise Pollution Control
  • 1. Physical Air Pollutants: There are many factors under physical air pollutants: 
    • i. Smell of waste substances from homes.
    • ii. Radiation heat from radioactive sources.
    • iii. Smoke from commercial workshops and home chimneys. 
  • 2. Biological Air Pollutants: Biological pollutants include the decay of agricultural waste and the odour produced by dead animal decay.
  • 3. Chemical Air Pollutants: It consists of gases produced from chemical fertilizers, and harmful gases from industrial workshop as (CO2, CO, SO2) etc. 

Q4. Discuss the form of air pollutants.

Ans. Although there are many different types of air pollution, they can all be thought of as gases and particles that are contaminating the Earth’s atmosphere.

  • A. Gaseous Pollutants: 
    • 1. They include sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOC), hydrogen sulphide (H2S), hydrogen fluoride (HF), and various gaseous forms of metals.
    • 2. Large stationary sources, such as smelters, industrial boilers, petroleum refineries, manufacturing facilities, and power plants that burn fossil fuels, as well as regional and mobile sources, release these pollutants.
  • B. Particulates or Aerosol:
    • 1. They are solid, both in large and little sizes.
    • 2. Materials like lead, asbestos fibres, and dust are examples of large particles.
    •  Fine particulates include sulphates (SO4) and nitrates (NO3). 
    • 4. Power plants, smelters, mines, and autos are significant contributors of particles.
    • 5. Lead and asbestos have an impact on living things, whereas sulphates and nitrates not only harm humans and animals but also contribute to acid rain and reduced visibility. 
  • C. Toxic Air Pollutants: 
    • 1. A group of substances that have the potential to seriously harm human health.
    • 2. Industries, the use of pesticides, power plants, and contaminated wind-blown dust are some of the sources of harmful air pollution.
    • 3. Due to their worldwide mobility and capacity to accumulate in the food chain, persistent hazardous contaminants like mercury are of special concern.  

Q5. What are the effects of air pollutants on animals?

Ans. Effects of Air-Pollutants on Live-Stock Animals:

  • 1. Farm animals are exposed to air pollutants through eating plants, grass, fodder, and other vegetation that has been contaminated by the pollutants.
  • 2. Fluorine, arsenic, and lead are contaminants that harm livestock.
  • 3. These pollutants are either produced by local industry or by spraying and dusting.
  • 4. As cattle and sheep are discovered to be more vulnerable to ingesting fluorine, fluorine shows to be the worst pollutant of these pollutants.
  • 5. Even if the contaminated plants do not exhibit any visible signs of damage, cattle that graze on them may develop fluorosis.
  • 6. Arsenic poisoning can cause cattle to eat contaminated vegetation, which can cause symptoms like salivation, thirst, vomiting, drowsiness, a feeble and regular pulse, and irregular breathing. Arsenic from dusts and insecticide sprays falling on plants can also accumulate by the plants.
  • 7. Smelters, coke ovens, and other industries that use coal as a fuel cause lead to be released into the atmosphere.
  • 8. Lead is accumulated within the vegetation as a result of the lead fumes that the vegetation absorbs from the air.
  • 9. Livestock animals that consume lead-contaminated vegetation may develop lead poisoning, which can manifest as a complete loss of appetite, paralysis of the digestive tract, and diarrhea in addition to symptoms like being unable to stand up straight and staggering.

Q6. What are the reasons of automobile pollution in India and measures to control it ?

Ans. A. Reasons of Automobile Pollution in India:

  • 1. India’s transportation options are constantly expanding.
  • 2. Increased car use in cities as a result of population expansion.
  • 3. Reliance only on gasoline and diesel engines for propulsion.
  • 4. Unrestricted use of outdated automobiles on the road.
  • 5. Poor road conditions and incorrect pollution inspection of automobiles at regular intervals.

B. Measures to Control Automobile Pollution: There are following measures to control it which are given below:

  • 1. Developments in car manufacturing technology.
  • 2. Flyovers should be constructed and city roadways should be well maintained.
  • 3. Only gasoline should be utilised with gasoline engines.
  • 4. Oil needs to be changed periodically.
  • 5. Only high-quality lubricant should be used.
  • 6. Automobiles need to be serviced on a regular basis.
  • 7. Motorists ought to maintain a constant speed.
  • 8. Vehicles that run on CNG and batteries should be improved, as well as the quality of the fuel.
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