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Software Project Management KIT-071 Btech Aktu Short Question Quantum Book Pdf

B.Tech AKTU Quantum Book Short Question Notes on Software Project Management can be found here. Learn about project strategy, execution, and insights for effective software development and delivery.

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Unit-I: Introduction and Software Project Planning (Short Question)

Q1. What are the common failures in software development ?  

Ans. Software projects fails due to one or more following reasons : 

  • i. It does not always match the requirements. 
  • ii. It frequently costs more than anticipated. 
  • iii. It takes longer to accomplish than expected. 
  • iv. Maintenance is frequently difficult. 

Q2. What are the unique characteristics of software project ?

Ans. Certain characteristics which make software project different are : 

  • i. Invisibility: Progress is not visible immediately. 
  • ii. Complexity: Software products contain more complexity like cost and time estimation, language of software etc. 
  • iii. Flexibility: Ease with which software can be changed. 
  • iv. Conformity: Conforming to the requirements of changing human minds.  

Q3. Give any four problems faced by project manager. 

Ans. The following are commonly problems faced by project manager : 

  • i. Insufficient estimates and plans. 
  • ii. Inadequate quality standards and metrics. 
  • iii. A lack of direction in making organisational decisions. 
  • iv. A lack of techniques for demonstrating progress.  

Q4. What is project infrastructure ?  

Ans. The organisational structure, processes, tools, techniques, and training that an organisation implements to make projects more successful are referred to as project infrastructure. 

Q5. How will you define a effective and well defined objective?

Ans. An effective goal for an individual must be under that individual’s control. Furthermore, the target must be SMART in order to be well-defined. The acronym SMART stands for specified, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound. 

Q6. Who are the project stakeholders in software projects ?  

Ans. These are the people who have an interest or stake in the project. 

Following are the known project stakeholders : 

  • i. Project managers
  • ii. Project leader
  • iii. Project team 
  • iv. Customers/users
  • v. Supplier
  • vi Opponents to the project 

Q7. What are the tasks in project management framework ?  

Ans. Project management framework consists of following tasks :

  • i. Project initiation 
  • ii. Project planning
  • iii. Effort estimation 
  • iv. Time frame estimation 
  • v. Cost estimation 
  • vi. Requisition of resources  
  • vii. Risk management 
  • viii. Configuration management 
  • ix. Procurement management 
  • x. Project monitoring 
  • xi. Project control 
  • xii. Evaluating alternatives  
  • xiii. Taking decisions 
  • xiv Communicating decision 

Q8. What do you understand from software project planning?

Ans. Project planning is a component of project management that includes a number of processes. The project plan, which is used to monitor and govern the project, reflects the current status of all project operations. 

Q9. Explain project scope definition and scope planning. 

Ans. In this step, we document the project work that will assist us in meeting the project’s objectives. We describe the assumptions, restrictions, user expectations, business needs, technical requirements, project deliverables, project objectives, and everything else that determines the requirements for the final product. This is the foundation for completing the project successfully. 

Q10. Explain the project plan development and execution process of project planning. 

Ans. All other planning activities, such as scope definition, activity identification, activity sequencing, quality management planning, and so on, are used to construct the project plan. A complete work breakdown structure that includes all of the listed activities is used. The jobs are planned based on the inputs obtained in the preceding processes. The project plan records and drives the project’s assumptions, activities, schedule, and timeliness. 

Q11. What are the stages where estimation is done ? 

Ans. Estimates are carried out through following stages of software project: 

  • i. Strategic planning 
  • ii. Feasibility study 
  • iii. System specification 
  • iv. Evaluation of supplier’s proposals 
  • v. Project planning  

Q12. List the basis for software effort estimation. 

Ans. The basis for software estimation are as follows : 

  • i. The need for historical data 
  • ii. Measure of work 
  • iii. Complexity 

Q13. State Brook’s law.

Ans. According to Brook’s law, placing more employees on a late job makes it later. As the project team expands in size, so will the amount of effort required for management, coordination, and communication. 

Q14. What is parametric model of cost estimation ? 

Ans. Algorithmic cost modelling is also known as a parametric cost estimating model. In this strategy, project cost is linked to some software metric, which in this example is size. In parametric model, effort can be calculated as: 

effort = (system size) x (productivity rate) 

where size is in thousands of lines of code (KLOC) and productivity is in days per KLOC or person months per KLOC.  

Q15. Give examples of application programs, utility programs and system programs used in COCOMO. 

Ans. Application programs include data processing program. Utility programmes include compilers, inkers, and so on. System programmes include operating systems and real-time system programs. 

Q16. What are the different categories of costs during cost estimation of project ?  

Ans. Cost must be categorised into one of the following category wherever they originate in the life of the project : 

  • i. Development costs 
  • ii. Setup costs 
  • iii. Operational costs  

Q17. Using a diagram show an example of an activity network. 


Using a diagram show an example of an activity network. Software Project Management

Q18. Illustrate the six key steps of project initiation phase using a diagram.  


Illustrate the six key steps of project initiation phase using a diagram.  

Q19. This document represents the idea and decisions developed during the envisioning phase. Its main sections are : business opportunity, solutions concept, scope, solution design strategies. Identify the document. 

Ans. Vision and scope document.  

Q20. Expert judgment, algorithmic cost modelling are some of its techniques and it helps in good estimation of cost of project. Which type of estimation have above characteristics ?

Ans. Effort estimation.  

Q21. This model is used for cost estimation and effort estimation on the basis of following categories of software : Organic, semidetached and embedded. Name the model. 

Ans. Constructive cost estimation model (COCOMO). 

Unit-II: Project Organization and Scheduling (Short Question)

Q1. Name the elements present at Level 2 of WBS. 

Ans. There are five types of level 2 element which are : 

  • i. Product breakdown elements 
  • ii. Service projèct breakdown elements 
  • iii. Results project breakdown elements 
  • iv. Cross cutting elements 
  • v. Project management elements

Q2. Write any three principles of WBS. 

Ans. Three principles of WBS are : 

  • i. The WBS covers the total scope of the project. 
  • ii. Work in each element is equivalent to the sum of the work in subordinate elements. 
  • iii. Each WBS element should have a unique identifier.  

Q3. Give any two characteristics of activity.  

Ans. The two characteristics of activity are: 

  • i. Work is done and described using a verb, an adjective, and a noun.
  • ii. The work is overseen by a single person or organisation. Although more than one resource may be assigned to an activity, the output is delivered by a single person. If this is not the case, the item should be further decomposed or joint duties stated. 

Q4. What is task effort ?  

Ans. A task effort is the project’s lowest degree of effort. A work breakdown structure is made up of activities, and those activities are made up of task effort. A professional is educated for and expected to know how to perform a task effort. 

Q5. Describe product identification used in different life cycles of software.  

Ans. Task and activity identification requires a general awareness of software development activities as well as the ability to identify the software product. The product development technique required for identifying tasks and activities is an understanding of the processes of software development employing multiple life cycles. 

Q6. List the different product development techniques. 

Ans. The product development techniques are as follows : 

  • i. Assessing process 
  • ii. Defining the product 
  • iii. Evaluating alternative processes 
  • iv. Tailoring processes 
  • v. Understanding development activities  

Q7. Explain the terms process and process model. 

Ans. The term ‘process’ is occasionally used to emphasise the concept of a system in operation. The system’s process is to execute one or more activities in order to accomplish a result. This concept can be applied to the development of computer-based systems, where a multitude of interconnected tasks must be completed to produce a final output. These activities can be organised in various ways, which we might refer to as process models. 

Major part of the planning will be choosing development methods and slotting them into an overall process model. 

Q8. What are the basis for choosing a SDLC ?

Ans. We can choose a SDLC on any one of the following basis : 

  • i. Development speed 
  • ii. Product quality 
  • iii. Project visibility
  • iv. Administrative overhead  
  • v. Risk exposure 

Q9. What is the difference between the two types of prototyping model ?  

Ans. In evolutionary / exploratory prototyping, the developer begins constructing the programme with the needs that are best understood, as this will necessitate minimum changes in the prototype later on and aid in the exploration of unexplored requirements. 

The prototype in throw-away prototyping is based on less well known needs; its key goal is that when the user uses this prototype, its shortcomings will assist the user comprehend the requirement more properly. 

Q10. What is DSDM and SSADM ?

Ans. The acronyms SSADM and DSDM stand for structured system analysis design method and dynamic systems development method, respectively. Both of these are strategies for developing software projects. 

Q11. What do you understand by project feasibility in software development ?  

Ans. The consideration of risks, costs, and benefits in economics, technology, and user operations is known as feasibility. When building a system (software), we must determine whether or not the proposed system will be practically implemented. 

Q12. What are the steps involved in feasibility analysis ?  

Ans. The feasibility study involves following eight steps: 

  • i. Form a project and appoint a project leader. 
  • ii. Prepare system flow-chart. 
  • iii. Enumerate potential candidate system. 
  • iv. Describe and identify the characteristics of candidate system. 
  • v. Determine and evaluate performance and cost effectiveness of each candidate system. 
  • vi. Weight system performance and cost data. 
  • vii. Select best candidate system. 
  • viii. Prepare and report final project directive to management.  

Q13. Write three basic objectives of scheduling. 

Ans. The basic objectives of scheduling are : 

  • i. It serves as the foundation for all planning, forecasting, and assisting management in determining how to allocate resources to meet schedule and cost objectives. 
  • ii. It serves as a foundation for gathering facts for decision making. 
  • iii. It demonstrates the interdependence of activities.  

Q14. What are the key processes for developing a project schedule ? 

Ans. There are five key processes for developing a project schedule, which are as follows : 

  • i. Define activities 
  • ii. Sequence activities  
  • iii. Estimate activity resources 
  • iv. Estimate activity durations 
  • v. Develop schedule 

Q15. List some limitations of PERT.  

Ans. Following are limitations of PERT : 

  • i. Project tasks and their ties to one another must be clearly specified. 
  • ii. The PERT network does not handle task overlap well. 
  • iii. The PERT network is only as good as the project manager’s time estimations. 

Q16. What is milestone schedule ? 

Ans. It is a high-level schedule that specifies significant milestones. They are simply formed by listing the milestones as activities and assigning them a duration of zero. 

Q17. What is scheduled finish date ?  

Ans. A scheduled finish date (SF) is a moment in time when work on an activity was scheduled to be completed. The scheduled finish date is usually within the time frame defined by the early and late finish dates. 

Q18. What is scheduled start date ? 

Ans. A scheduled start date (SS) is a moment in time when work on an activity was scheduled to begin. The scheduled start date is usually within the time frame defined by the early and late start dates. 

Q19. Explain time-scaled network diagram. 

Ans. A time-scaled network diagram is any project network diagram that is constructed in such a way that the positioning and length of the activity represents its duration. It is essentially a bar chart with network logic.  

Q20. Give a diagram that shows WBS for CPU upto level 3 for assembling a CPU of computer. 


Give a diagram that shows WBS for CPU upto level 3 for assembling a CPU of computer. 

Q21. It is a chart in which critical work elements of a project are illustrated. Its purpose is to divide the project into manageable pieces of work. Name the chart. 

Ans. Work breakdown structure. 

Q22. This approach consists of creating a list of all the activities that the project is through to involve. It involves identifying main tasks and further breaking them into lower level tasks. Predict the approach. 

Ans. Activity-based approach. 

Q23. This chart is a project management tool used to schedule, organize, and coordinate tasks within a project. It is a network of tasks needed to complete a project, showing their order and the dependencies between them. 

Identify the type of chart. 

Ans. Project evaluation and review technique (PERT) chart. 

Unit-III: Project Monitoring and Control (Short Question)

Q1. Define portfolio management. 

Ans. Any proposed project will be part of a portfolio of ongoing and planned initiatives, and project selection must take into account the potential implications on other projects in the portfolio. Portfolio management refers to the monitoring and control of the created portfolio. 

Q2. List some issues that should be considered during strategic assessment of a project.  

Ans. The typical issues that should be considered during strategic assessment of a project are :  

  • i. Objectives  
  • ii. Information system plan 
  • iii. Organization structure 
  • iv. Management information system
  • v. Personnel 
  • vi. Image  

Q3. What do you mean by technical assessment ?  

Ans. A proposed system’s technical assessment consists of comparing the desired functionality to the hardware and software available. When an organisation has a strategic information systems plan, the types of solutions that can be evaluated are likely to be limited. The constraints will, of course, affect the cost of the solution, which must be considered in the cost-benefit analysis.  

Q4. What do you understand by earned value management ?

Ans. Earned value management (EVM) is a project performance measurement approach. It is one of the most effective project management performance assessment and feedback tools. It is based on a project’s earned value analysis and efficiently identifies the project’s condition and performance. 

Q5. What are the steps to establish a performance measurement baseline (PMB) ? 

Ans. Steps to establish a performance measurement baseline are: 

  • i. Decompose work scope to manageable level. 
  • ii. Assign unambiguous management responsibility. 
  • iii. Develop a time phased budget for each work task. 
  • iv. Select earned value measurement techniques for all task. 
  • v. Maintain integrity of PMB throughout the project.  

Q6. What do you mean by error tracking ? 

Ans. Error tracking can also be used to estimate project progress. In this situation, we track errors in work deliverables (requirement specifications, design documents, source code, and so on) to assess a project’s status. 

Q7. Write some coding standards used in software projects.  

Ans. Some of the coding standards used in software projects are : 

  • i. Commenting 
  • ii. Program robustness 
  • iii Modules and modular program structure 
  • iv. Program testing 
  • v. Minimize data scope where possible 

Q8. List the programming errors which can be checked during code inspection. 

Ans. The programming errors which can be checked during code inspection are: 

  • i. Use of uninitialized variables. 
  • ii. Array indices out of bounds. 
  • iii. Non-terminating loops. 
  • iv. Mismatch between actual and formal parameter in procedure calls.  

Q9. Write three objectives of formal technical review. 

Ans. Objectives of formal technical review are : 

  • i. To uncover errors in function, logic or implementation of software. 
  • ii. To verify that software under review meets its requirement. 
  • iii. To make projects more manageable. 

Q10. What are the advantages of pair programming ? 

Ans. The advantages of pair programming are: 

  • i. Flexibility: If you pair on everything, then you can contribute to anything. 
  • ii. Code ownership: You bear responsibility for the piece of work you worked on. 
  • iii. Collaboration: Problems get solved very quickly by working together. 

Q11. List the priorities to decide levels of monitoring. 

Ans. Prioritizing monitoring helps in better use of resources and time. 

The priorities to decide levels of monitoring are: 

  • i. Critical path activities  
  • ii. Activities with no delay 
  • iii. Activities with less than a specified delay 
  • iv. High risk activities 
  • v. Activities using critical resources  

Q12. What do you understand by change control ?

Ans. Changes must be carefully monitored since changes to one document frequently result in changes to other documents and the system products that rely on that document. Even if the requirements change, they must be controlled. 

Q13. Using a suitable diagram, show the schedule variance and cost variance in cost and time frame. 


Using a suitable diagram, show the schedule variance and cost variance in cost and time frame. 

Q14. A project is expected to complete in 8 months. After 2 months, manager realizes that 30 % of the project is completed. Find the schedule variance. 

Ans. Here, Planned value 

(P) = 8 months

Earned value 

(E) = 30% of project

New 30% of x = 2 months (Given) 

A project is expected to complete in 8 months. After 2 months, manager realizes that 30 % of the project is completed. Find the schedule variance. 

– ve sign shows either time or budget is overestimated.  

Q15. “This assessment evaluates how a project contributes to a programme goal and its viability and timing. If there is no explicitly defined programme then business objectives are taken as goal”. Identify the type of assessment. 

Ans. Strategic assessment. 

Q16. The purpose of this technique is only to find out the problem and not to correct them. Here author explain the work product in an informal meeting to his peers or supervisors to get feedback. Name the technique. 

Ans. Walkthrough. 

Unit-IV: Software Quality Assurance and Testing (Short Question)

Q1. List the components of SQA plan. 

Ans. The SQA plan include the following: 

  • i. Project planning 
  • i. Models of data, classes and objects, processes, design architecture 
  • iii. SRS 
  • iv. Test plans for testing SRS 
  • v. User manuals 
  • vi. Audit and review  

Q2. What are the goals of software quality assurance ?

Ans. i. Activities for software quality assurance are planned. 

ii. The conformity of software products and activities to applicable standards, methods, and requirements is objectively checked. 

iii. Affected groups and individuals are kept up to date on software quality assurance activities and outcomes. 

Q3. Discuss any three software quality factors. 

Ans. i. Correctness: The extent to which a program satisfies its specification. 

ii. Reliability: The degree to which a programme may be expected to fulfil its intended function with the needed precision. 

iii. Efficiency: Amount of computing resources and codes required by a programme to execute its function. 

Q4. What are the responsibilities of quality managers ? 

Ans. The quality managers have following responsibilities: 

  • i. Quality assurance 
  • ii. Quality planning 
  • iii. Quality control 

Q5. Name the various software quality measures. 

Ans. Software quality measures are used to assess the quality of a system or component. These are :  

  • i. User satisfaction measures  
  • ii. Performance measures 
  • iii. Maintenance measures 
  • iv. Adaptive measures  

Q6. Name the different software qualities assurance attributes. 

Ans. The software quality assurance attributes are as follows : 

  • i. Runtime system qualities 
  • ii. Non-runtime system qualities 
  • iii. Business qualities 
  • iv. Architecture qualities

Q7. What do you understand by product quality management ? 

Ans. Product quality management is concerned with software quality measures such as dependability, maintainability, and extendibility. When a product-based strategy is adopted for project planning and control, the product is of high quality. 

Q8. Specify the process requirements for error removal. 

Ans. The following process requirements are specified for error removal: 

  • i. Entry requirements 
  • ii. Implementation requirements 
  • iii. Exit requirements  

Q9. What is quality standard ?

Ans. A quality standard is a set of process models or frameworks as well as the product’s quality mark. They are used to assess a project’s or an organization’s process maturity.  

Q10. Give some of the requirements of ISO 9001. 

Ans. Some of the main requirements of ISO 9001 are : 

  • i. Management responsibility 
  • ii. Quality system 
  • iii. Contract reviews 
  • iv. Design control 
  • v. Document control 

Q11. Name the six software quality characteristics of ISO 9126. 

Ans. Software quality characteristics of ISO 9126 are : 

  • i. Functionality 
  • ii. Reliability 
  • iii. Usability 
  • iv. Efficiency 
  • v. Maintainability 
  • vi. Portability 

Q12. What are the objectives of software testing ? 

Ans. Objectives of software testing are: 

  • i. Software quality management
  • ii. Verification and validation 
  • iii. Software reliability estimation

Q13. Give three principles of software testing. 

Ans. Some important principles of software testing are : 

  • i. All tests should be traceable to customer requirements. 
  • ii. Testing time and resources are limited, so avoid redundant test. 
  • iii. Document test cases and test results.  

Q14. Define the term test case. 

Ans. This is a triplet [I, S, O] where I is the data input to the system, S is the state of the system at which the data is input and O is the expected output of the system.

Q15. Define the types of test plans. 

Ans. Different types of test plans are : 

  • i. A mission plan tells “why”. 
  • ii. A strategic plan tells what” and when”. 
  • iii. A tactical plan tells “how” and “who”. 

Q16. Why test plans should be prepared for testing ? 

Ans. The goal of creating a test plan is to ensure that everyone involved with the project is on the same page regarding the project’s scope, responsibilities, deadlines, and deliverables. 

Q17. Why sign-off is important in test plan ? 

Ans. Sign-off refers to mutual agreement between the customer and the QA team on the test plan, which aids in the resolution of any disputes that may arise during the course of the project.  

Q18. What is regression testing ?

Ans. Regression testing is used to identify new errors that arise as a result of the remedy of problems discovered throughout the testing process. It is typically used on new software versions. 

Q19. Give the various techniques of white box testing. 

Ans. The important white box testing techniques are: 

  • i. Basic path testing 
  • ii. Condition testing 
  • iii. Data flow testing 
  • iv. Loop testing  

Q20. Write two aims of test strategy. 

Ans. i. “Testing-in-the-small” and move towards “testing-in-the-large”. 

ii. Use effective formal technical reviews as a filter prior to testing.  

Q21. Depict the units of function point analysis using a suitable diagram. 


Depict the units of function point analysis using a suitable diagram. 

Q22. Diagrammatically show the six quality characters used in ISO 9126. 


Diagrammatically show the six quality characters used in ISO 9126. 

Q23. Using a suitable diagram show the verification and validation process. 


Using a suitable diagram show the verification and validation process. 

Q24. It is a standard for software quality and has six quality characteristics : functionality, reliability, usability, efficiency, maintainability, and portability. 

Predict the standard. 

Ans. ISO 9126.  

Q25. This model shows the level of standard of any organization. This model has following five levels: initial, repeatable, defined, managed, and optimizing. Name the model.  

Ans. Capability maturity model (CMM). 

Q26. It is the continuous application of measurement based techniques to the software development processes and its products. They are all about measurements related to software and its productivity, quality, and process effectiveness. Name the term. 

Ans. Software metrics.  

Unit-V: Project Management (Short Question)

Q1. What are the mechanisms used in SCM?  

Ans. The mechanisms or activities used in SCM are : 

  • i. Configuration identification 
  • ii. Change control 
  • iii. Software configuration status reporting 
  • iv. Audits and reviews 

Q2. Give three functionalities of SCM. 

Ans. i. Give latest version of a program. 

ii. Prevent unauthorized changes or deletions. 

iii. Gather all sources, documents, and other information for the current system.  

Q3. Define risk. 

Ans. A risk is an unpredictable event or situation that, if it occurs, has a positive or negative impact on the goals of a project. Its characteristics are:

  • i. It relates to the future. 
  • ii. It involves cause and effect.

Q4. Write the different categories of risk. 

Ans. Risk can be categorized as follows:  

  • i. Project risks 
  • ii. Product risks 
  • iii. Business risks  

Q5. Write the categories of risk on the basis of security. 

Ans. On the basis of security, risks can be categorized as follows : 

  • i. Catastrophic 
  • ii. Critical 
  • iii. Marginal 
  • iv. Negligible 

Q6. What is software risk evaluation ?

Ans. The software risk assessment (SRE) service is a diagnostic and decision-making tool for identifying, analysing, tracking, mitigating, and communicating risks in software-intensive programmes. 

Q7. Write the strategies for planning of risk reduction and control or risk abatement. 

Ans. There are five strategies for planning of risk reduction and control. They are as follows: 

  • i. Hazard prevention 
  • ii. Likelihood reduction 
  • iii. Risk avoidance 
  • iv. Risk transfer 
  • v. Contingency planning

Q8. What do you mean by risk transfer ? 

Ans. Some hazards can be moved away from the project by contracting out or purchasing insurance. Risk is passed to another individual or organisation in this case.  

Q9. What is contingency planning ?

Ans. Contingency planning is based on the assumption that mitigation measures have failed and the risk has become a reality. Contingency planning is required to mitigate the effects of the risk. 

Q10. What are risk drivers ?

Ans. It is critical to understand the project’s drivers in order to successfully manage risk. For example, if a project’s budget is more essential, the risk should be defined and managed as a budget risk. 

Q11. Name the various risk drivers.  

Ans. The various risk drivers are as follows: 

  • i. Schedule
  • ii. Budget 
  • iii. Quality 
  • iv. Surrounding environment 
  • v. Hardware 
  • vi. Software 

Q12. Define cash flow forecasting. 

Ans. Forecasting the cash flows that will occur and their timing is just as critical as evaluating the overall costs and benefits of a project. A cash flow prediction will show when expenditure and income will occur.

Q13. What is CASE ?

Ans. CASE stands for computer aided software engineering. It is the use of computer-assisted methods to organise and control the creation of software, particularly on large, complicated projects involving numerous software components and humans. 

Q14. Write two benefits of CASE tools. 

Ans. Benefits of CASE tools are as follows : 

  • i. Improved productivity 
  • ii. Better documentation  

Q15. List out three mostly used CASE tools. 

Ans. The mostly used CASE tools are as follows: 

  • i. Software requirements tools : MS Access, Turbo analysis. 
  • ii. Software design tools: UMLet, Visual Paradigm 
  • iii. Software construction tools: Visual studio, Emacs 

Q16. Write a short note on MS-project.

Ans. MS-project is project management software that may be used to record, calculate, analyse, consolidate, and show project information. It aids in the development of a project plan and the achievement of project objectives on schedule and within budget.  

Q17. Give the structure of risk engineering using a suitable diagram.  


Give the structure of risk engineering using a suitable diagram.  

Q18. Draw the cause effect diagram for a software project during defect analysis and prevention. 


Draw the cause effect diagram for a software project during defect analysis and prevention.

Q19. Name the process which uses following techniques: return on investment and net present value. This process compares the expected costs of development and operation with the estimated income and benefits from the system. Identify the process. 

Ans. Cost benefit analysis.  

Q20. This environment uses software programs and tools that are designed to assist human programmers with the complexity of the processes and the artifacts of software engineering. These automated tools help in the analysis, modeling, or documentation of software. 

Identify the environment.  

Ans. Computer aided software engineering (CASE). 

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