# Power Plant Engineering KME-076 Btech Aktu Short Question, Notes Pdf

Discover B.Tech AKTU Quantum Book Short Power Plant Engineering Question Notes. Discover the fundamentals of power generation and steam cycles, as well as insights into efficient and sustainable energy production systems.

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## Unit-I: Thermal Power Plant (Short Question)

Q1. What are the major sources of energy ?

Ans. The major sources of energy are :

• 1. Fuels:
• i. Solids : Coal, coke etc.
• ii. Liquids : Petroleum, Gasoline etc.
• iii. Gases : Natural gas.
• 2. Hydro energy.

Q2. What do you mean by Rankine cycle ?

Ans. Rankine cycle is the theoretical cycle on which the steam turbine (or engine) works.

Q3. Define equivalent evaporation.

Ans. The amount of water evaporated from water at 100 °C to dry and saturated steam at 100 °C is defined as equivalent evaporation.

Mathematically,

Q4. Define boiler efficiency.

Ans. Boiler efficiency is defined as the ratio of heat actually used in steam generation to heat provided by the fuel over the same time period.

Where, C = Calorific value of the fuel in kJ / kg.

Q5. Write a short note on economiser.

Ans. 1. The economiser recovers heat from the flue gases to warm the boiler feed water before it reaches the boiler drum.

2. Water is heated in the economiser to around 30 to 40 °C below saturation temperature.

Q6. Write the function of baffles.

Ans. Baffles direct the flow of fluids for maximum efficiency in various vessels such as shell and tube heat exchangers, chemical reactors, and so on.

Q7. What is the difference between boiler mountings and boiler accessories ?

Ans.

Q8. What is the purpose of governing in steam turbine ? Enlist various methods employed for governing in steam power plants.

Ans. Purpose of Governing in Steam Power Plants :

• 1. It is required for controlling and regulating the output of a turbine according to variable demands in service.
• 2. It maintains the speed of turbine at constant level irrespective of load.

Methods for Governing Steam Turbines :

• 1. Throttle governing,
• 2. Nozzle governing, and
• 3. Bypass governing.

Q9. Why thermal power plants are not suitable for supplying fluctuating loads.

Ans. Thermal power plants are not ideal for delivering variable loads since any change in load demand necessitates a change in output energy. Because thermal plants generate input energy by burning coal, there is always a temporal lag between the change in energy at the output and the change in energy at the input, which is undesirable. As a result, such power plants are only employed as base load plants, producing steady electricity.

Q10. What is a pulverized and why it is used ?

Ans. Pulverised refers to the equipment used in the pulverising process. It is used to refine raw coal into very fine coal.

Q11. Why are super heaters used in steam power plants ?

Ans. In steam power plants, superheaters are used to raise the temperature of the steam over its saturation point.

Q12. What is the scope of an engineers at a power plant ?

Ans. A power plant engineer is in charge of the day-to-day functioning of a power plant. Their primary responsibilities include conducting operational tests, doing preventative maintenance on machinery, inspecting thermal systems, and collaborating with other plant staff.

Q13. What is the difference between thermal engineering and power plant engineering?

Ans.

Q14. Why is the efficiency of a thermal power plant higher in the winter than the summer ?

Ans. The efficiency of a thermal power plant is better in winter than in summer because steam condenses at significantly lower temperatures and pressures in winter since the cooling water temperature is lower.

## Unit-II: Hydroelectric and Gas Turbine Power Plant (Short Question)

Q1. What are the fields of application of gas turbine ?

Ans. The fields of application of gas turbine are:

• 1. Aviation,
• 2. Power generation,
• 3. Oil and gas industry, and
• 4. Marine propulsion.

Q2. What do you mean by a closed cycle gas turbine ?

Ans. The working ingredient of a closed cycle gas turbine is contained within the plant. The turbine’s exhaust gases are not discharged into the atmosphere, but rather recirculate continuously throughout the process.

Q3. Mention any two drawbacks of a stationary gas turbine power plant for generation of electricity.

Ans. Drawbacks of a stationary gas turbine power plant for generation of electricity are :

• 1. Poor part load efficiency.
• 2. Special metals and alloys are required for different components of the plants.
• 3. Special cooling methods are required for turbine blades.

Q4. Mention the various processes of the Brayton cycle.

Ans. Various processes of Brayton cycle are:

• 1. 1-2, Reversible adiabatic compression,
• 2. 2-3, Constant pressure heat addition,
• 3. 3-4, Reversible adiabatic expansion,
• 4. 4-1, Constant pressure heat rejection.

Q5. Why is the maximum cycle temperature of gas turbine plant much lower than that of diesel power plant ?

Ans. The maximum cycle temperature of a diesel power plant is maintained for a very short time period, whereas in gas turbine plants, the components are continuously exposed to hot gases, resulting in high centrifugal stress. As a result, the maximum cycle temperature of a gas power plant should be maintained much lower than that of a diesel power plant.

Q6. Write down the perfect conditions for intercooling in Brayton cycle.

Ans. Perfect conditions for intercooling is given by,

Where, p1 = Compressor inlet pressure

p2 = Turbine inlet pressure

p3 = Compressor outlet pressure

Q7. What is a hydro power plant ?

Ans. The turbines in a hydropower plant are powered by the energy of water, which then drives the generator to generate electricity.

Q8. What are the advantages and disadvantages of restricted orifice surge tank?

Ans. Advantages: Storage functions of the tank can be separated from accelerating and retarding functions.

Disadvantages: Considerable portion of water hammer pressure is transmitted directly into the low pressure conduit.

Q9. What is runoff ?

Ans. Run off is the quantity of rainfall that falls on the earth’s land surface and flows into streams, rivers, lakes, or the ocean.

Q10. Mention any two drawbacks of a stationary gas turbine power plant for generation of electricity.

Ans. Drawbacks of a stationary gas turbine power plant for generation of electricity are:

• 1. Poor part load efficiency.
• 2. Special metals and alloys are required for different components of the plants.
• 3. Special cooling methods are required for turbine blades.

Q11. Is hydropower conventional or non conventional ? Why ?

Ans. Hydropower is a non-traditional source of energy because it is generated by a natural source, namely water. It cannot be quickly depleted and can be created at a consistent rate for repeated use.

## Unit-III: Nuclear and Solar Power Plant (Short Question)

Q1. What do you mean by nuclear fission ?

Ans. Nuclear fission is the splitting of a heavy nucleus into two or more lighter nuclei.

Q2. What are the advantages of nuclear power plant ?

Ans. Advantages of nuclear power plant are :

• 1. Fuel consumption is less.
• 2. It takes up less space because there is no need for coal storage, coal handling, ash handling, or ash disposal.
• 3. It produces valuable fissile material, e.g. Th232 can be converted into U233 in a nuclear reactor.
• 4. The problems associated with environmental pollution, mine safety and fuel transportation are less severe.

Q3. Differentiate between chemical energy and nuclear energy.

Ans.

Q4. What are the moderators ?

Ans. The moderators absorb some of the kinetic energy of the fast travelling neutrons. The neutrons collide with the moderator and slow down as a result.

Q5. What do you understand by moderation ?

Ans. The process of absorbing kinetic energy of moving neutrons is known as moderation.

Q6. What is thermal neutron ?

Ans. When a large number of neutrons are slowed down in a medium such as a moderator, the lowest energy they can achieve are those that bring them into thermal equilibrium with the molecules of that medium. They become thermalized and are known as thermal (or slow) neutrons in this state (ground state).

Q7. What is CANDU type reactor ?

Ans. The CANDU reactor is a thermal nuclear power reactor in which heavy water (99.8% deuterium oxide, D2O) serves as the moderator, coolant, and neutron reflector.

Q8. What is a breeder reactor ?

Ans. A fast reactor, in its most basic form, is a tiny vessel that stores the required amount of enriched plutonium without the use of a moderator. The vessel is surrounded with fissible material that absorbs neutrons, while the reactor core is cooled by liquid metal.

Q9. Why is shielding of a nuclear reactor necessary ?

Ans. Shielding a nuclear reactor is required to protect it from the damaging radiations released by radioactive elements such as uranium and plutonium.

Q10. How is a nuclear power plant decommissioned ?

Ans. The decommissioning process entails extracting old nuclear fuel from the reactor, depositing it in the used fuel pool, and finally placing it in dry storage containers, as well as destroying components carrying radioactive materials.

Q11. Define concentrating collector or focusing collector.

Ans. Concentrating Collector: It is a device that uses a reflector or refractor to collect solar energy with a high intensity of solar radiation on an absorbing surface.

Q12. What are the different types of solar collectors ?

Ans. Solar collectors are classified in two type:

• i. Non-concentrating collector or flat plate type solar collector, and
• ii. Concentrating collector or focusing type solar collector.

## Unit-IV: Non-Conventional Power Plants (Short Question)

Q1. What do you mean by a geothermal power plant ?

Ans. Geothermal power plants are those that harness the energy that exists under the earth’s surface. Because the planet has a molten core, steam and hot water naturally rise to the earth’s surface at some point.

Q2. Explain wind energy.

Ans. Wind energy is a type of solar energy. Wind energy, an indirect form of energy, can be utilised to power a wind mill, which powers a generator to generate electricity.

Q3. What is a fuel cell ?

Ans. A fuel cell is an electrochemical device that directly and effectively converts the chemical energy of a standard fuel into low voltage, direct current electrical energy.

Q4. Write down the applications of fuel cell.

Ans. Applications :

• i. It is used in automotive vehicles.
• ii. It is used in domestic power unit.
• iii. It is used in control power station.

Q5. What are the advantages of wind energy ?

Ans. Advantages of wind energy are as follows :

• 1. It is renewable and available at free of cost.
• 2. Low operating cost.
• 3. Economically competitive.
• 4. It is reliable and cost effective for large unit.

Q6. What is the basic principle of wind energy conversion?

Ans. The basic principle of wind energy is to convert wind kinetic energy into more useful forms such as mechanical power and electrical power.

Q7. Define wind farms.

Ans. Wind farms are located in open spaces away from forests, cities, and mountains, with an average yearly wind speed of no less than 7 m/s and close to the distribution centre.

Q8. Give the sources of geothermal energy.

Ans. Sources of geothermal energy are as follows :

• 1. Hydrothermal energy sources,
• 2. Vapour dominated sources,
• 3. Hot dry rock sources,
• 4. Geopressured sources, and
• 5. Magma sources.

Q9. How tides are generated ?

Ans. Tides are caused by the sun’s and moon’s gravitational forces acting on the ocean, the world spinning on its axis, and the relative positions of the earth, moon, and sun.

Q10. What are the main components of wind energy conversion system (WECS) ?

Ans. The main components of wind energy conversion system are as follows :

• 2. Electromagnetic brakes,
• 3. Controller,
• 4. Mechanical brakes,
• 5. Gear box,
• 6. Generator,
• 7. Shaft, and
• 8. Flap or tail vane.

Q11. What are the advantages and limitations of geothermal power plant ?

Ans. Advantages of Geothermal Power Plant:

• 1. It is almost pollution free.
• 2. Significant cost saving.

Limitations of Geothermal Power Plant:

• 1. Suited to particular region.
• 2. High installation costs.

## Unit-V:Electrical System (Short Question)

Q1. What do you understand by base load and peak load ?

Ans. Base Load: It is the load below which the demand never falls and is supplied 100 % of the time.

Peak Load: It is the maximum load supplied for a particular day. The peaking load occurs for about 15 % of the time.

Q2. How load factor effect the cost per kWh?

Ans. Increase in load factor will reduce the average unit cost per kWh.

Ans. It is defined as the ratio of the average load to the peak load during certain specified period of time.

Q4. Define demand factor.

Ans. It is ratio of the actual maximum demand to the total connected demand.

Q5. Define plant use factor.

Ans. It is defined as the ratio of energy produced in a particular period to the maximum feasible energy produced during the same operation time.

Q6. What do you mean by two-wire direct current generators ?

Ans. Two-wire direct current generators feature only two line terminals, one for positive and the other for negative.

Q7. What is a generator ?

Ans. An electrical generator is a machine which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.

Q8. What is the need of alternator cooling ?

Ans. The various losses cause a temperature rise in various areas of an alternator and winding insulation. Cooling is essential to keep the temperature from rising above the maximum allowable level.

Q9. What are the different types of pollution from power generation ?

Ans. The various types of pollution from power generation are as follows :

• 2. Thermal pollution, and
• 3. Wastes from reactor (solid, liquid, gases).

Q10. What is the significance of two part tariff and three part tariff ?

Ans. i. Significance of Two Part Tariff : It is designed to enable the firm to capture more consumer surplus.

ii. Significance of Three Part Tariff : Here charges are split into three components.

Q11. What is the meaning of a power plants MW production? When a power plant is described as a “100 MW” plant, what does that mean ?

Ans. In a power plant, MW represents the plant’s capacity to generate energy. A 100 MW plant is capable of producing 100 MW of power.

Q12. Why hydrogen gas is used for cooling of rotor of a generator in thermal power station ?

Ans. Hydrogen gas is used for cooling of rotor of a generator because of its high heat capacity and low density.