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Btech Aktu Internet of Things KCS-712/KOT-501 Short Question, Notes, Quantum Book Pdf

Learn about the B.Tech AKTU Quantum Book Short Question Notes on the Internet of Things. Learn about the fundamentals of networked devices and data sharing, as well as how to create smart and automated systems.

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Unit-I: Internet of Things (IoT) and Design Principle for Connected Devices (Short Question)

Q1. Define IoT. 

Ans. The Internet of Things (IoT) is a concept that allows internetworking devices and applications to communicate with one another.  

Q2. Write the components of IoT conceptual framework. 

Ans. Components of IoT conceptual framework are: 

  • 1. Gather  
  • 2. Consolidate
  • 3. Connect  
  • 4. Collect 
  • 5. Assemble
  • 6. Manage and analyse  

Q3. What is IoT vision ?

Ans. The Internet of Things is a vision in which objects (wearable watches, alarm clocks, and home devices) become ‘smart’ and function like living entities by sensing, computing, and communicating via embedded devices that interact with remote objects (servers, clouds, and application services) or people via the Internet. 

Q4. What are the major components of IoT system ?

Ans. Major components of loT system are: 

  • 1. Physical object 
  • 2. Hardware 
  • 3. Communication module 
  • 4. Software 

Q5. Define M2M communication. 

Ans. Machine-to-Machine (M2M) refers to the process of communicating a physical object or device at a machine with others of the same sort, mostly for monitoring but also for control purposes. Each machine in an M2M system contains a smart device.  

Q6. Mention some communication technologies used in IoT. 

Ans. Communication technologies that are used in IoT are: 

  • 1. RFID 
  • 2. Bluetooth 
  • 3. Wifi 

Q7. What are the components of M2M system ?

Ans. Components of M2M system are: 

  • 1. M2M device 
  • 2. M2M area network 
  • 3. M2M gateway 
  • 4. M2M communication network 
  • 5. M2M applications 

Q8. What are the requirements of IoT ?  

Ans. Requirements of IoT are: 

  • 1. Energy 
  • 2. Intelligence 
  • 3. Communication 
  • 4. Integration 
  • 5. Dependability 
  • 6. Modeling and design 

Q9. What are the requirements of communication technologies in IoT ? 

Ans. Requirements of communication technologies in loT are: 

  • 1. Range and dissemination 
  • 2. Power consumption 
  • 3. Throughput 
  • 4. Number of devices 
  • 5. Multi-protocol support 
  • 6. Security and privacy  

Q10. List some example of IoT.

Ans. Example of IoT are: 

  • 1. Wearable devices 
  • 2. Smart cities 
  • 3. Smart home

Q11. Define data enrichment. 

Ans. Data enrichment refers to adding value, security and usability of data. 

Unit-II: Hardware of loT and Embedded Platforms for IoT (Short Question)

Q1. Define actuator. 

Ans. An actuator is a device that takes actions as per the input command, pulse or state (1 or 0), or set of 1s and 0s, or a control signal.  

Q2. What are the applications of actuator ?

Ans. Applications of actuator are:  

  • 1. Light sources 
  • 2. LEDs 
  • 3. Speakers 
  • 4. Ringing of alarm bell 
  • 5. Relay switch 

Q3. Define digital sensors. 

Ans. Digital sensors generate discrete digital output signals or voltages that indicate the quantity being measured digitally. Digital sensors generate a binary output signal that can be logic 1 or logic 0 (ON or OFF). 

Q4. What are the components of RFID system ? 

Ans. Components of RFD system are: 

  • 1. Transceiver 
  • 2. Data processing subsystem 
  • 3. Middleware 
  • 4. Application and services  

Q5. Define interrupt. 

Ans. Interrupt is defined as an activity in which a running programme interrupts a hardware signal, such as a timer timeout, or the execution of a software interrupt instruction. 

Q6. Define shield.  

Ans. Shield refers to a supporting circuit that includes connection pins, socket(s), and software. The connecting circuit connects a board or computing platform to external circuits. 

Q7. Define module. 

Ans. Module (hardware) is smaller form-factor hardware which can be placed onto a board. The module may embed the software. 

Q8. Define embedded device. 

Ans. A device that embeds software into a computing platform and performs calculations and communication for specific systems is referred to as an embedded device. 

Q9. What are the components of Raspberry Pi? 

Ans. Components of Raspberry Pi are: 

  • 1. HDMI cable 
  • 2. Monitor 
  • 3. Keyboard 
  • 4. Mouse

Q10. What are the challenges in WSN ?  

Ans. Challenges in WSN are: 

  • 1. Energy efficiency 
  • 2. Limited bandwidth 
  • 3. Design constraints 
  • 4. Security 

Unit-III: Network and Communication Aspects in loT (Short Question)

Q1. Define manageability. 

Ans. Manageability refers to the ability to manage IoT devices. The network can aid in the management of the software stack in the computer, which is a component of the networking infrastructure. 

Q2. What are the issues in wireless medium ?  

Ans. Issues in wireless medium are: 

  • 1. Halfduplex operation
  • 2. Time varying channel 
  • 3. Brust channel errors

Q3. What are fundamentals of MAC protocols ? 

Ans. Fundamentals of MAC protocols are: 

  • 1. Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) 
  • 2. Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) 
  • 3. Collision Division Multiple Access (CDMA)  

Q4. What is data aggregation ?

Ans. Data aggregation is the process of gathering information and presenting it in summary form for analysis. 

Q5. What are the performance measures of data aggregation ?

Ans. Performance measures of data aggregation are: 

  • 1. Network failure
  • 2. Latency 
  • 3. Data accuracy

Q6. What are the approaches used for data aggregation ?

Ans. Approaches used for data aggregation are: 

  • 1. Centralized approach
  • 2. In-network approach 
  • 3. Tree-based approach 
  • 4. Cluster-based approach 

Q7. Define data dissemination.  

Ans. Data dissemination is the process of routing data and data queries through a sensor network. 

Q8. What are the methods of data dissemination ?

Ans. Methods of data dissemination are: 

  • 1. Flooding 
  • 2. Gossiping 
  • 3. SPIN
  • 4. Cost-field approach 

Q9. What is node discovery?

Ans. Node discovery is a protocol family designed to detect node’s one-hop neighbours in a wireless sensor network. 

Unit-IV: Programming the Arduino (Short Question)

Q1. What is Arduino ?

Ans. Arduino is a prototype platform based on an easy to use hardware and software. 

Q2. What is use of Arduino IDE ?

Ans. Arduino IDE is used to write and upload the computer code to the physical board. 

Q3. Classify Arduino boards.  

Ans. Arduino boards are classified as: 

  • i. Arduino boards based on ATMEGA328 microcontroller. 
  • ii. Arduino boards based on ATMEGA32U4 microcontroller. 
  • iii. Arduino boards based on ATMEGA2560 microcontroller. 

Q4. Mention the components of Arduino board. 

Ans. Components of Arduino board are:

1. Power USB                     2. Power (Barrel jack) 

3. Voltage regulator            4. Crystal oscillator

5. Arduino reset                  6. Pin (3.3) 

7. GND (Ground)                8. Analog pins 

9. Main microcontroller     10. ICSP pin 

11. Power LED indicator     12. TX and RX LED

13. Digital I/O                      14. AREF 

Q5. What are the main parts of Arduino program ?

Ans. Main parts of Arduino program are:

  • 1. Structure 
  • 2. Value 
  • 3. Functions  

Q6. What are types of strings used in Arduino programming ? 

Ans. String types in Ardunio programming are the same as strings in C programming, such as array of characters and string object.

Q7. Mention time manipulation functions used in Arduino. 

Ans. Time manipulation functions used in Arduino are: 

  • 1. Delay() 
  • 2. DelayMicroseconds() 
  • 3. Millis() 
  • 4. Micros() 

Q8. Name different data types supported by Arduino programming. 

Ans. Different data types supported by Arduino programming are: 

  • 1. Void 
  • 2. Boolean 
  • 3. Char 
  • 4. Int 
  • 5. Float 

Q9. What are function libraries used in Arduino ?  

Ans. Function libraries used in Arduino are: 

  • 1. Input-output functions library 
  • 2. Character function library 
  • 3. Math library

Q10. Define emulation.

Ans. Emulation refers to performing an action in the manner of a real thing. Emulator software simulates the operation of a target board, which is an embedded device platform. 

Unit-V: Challenges in IoT Design and IoT Applications (Short Question)

Q1. What are the security challenges in IoT ? 

Ans. Security challenges in IoT are: 

  • 1. Data confidentiality 
  • 2. Privacy 
  • 3. Trust 

Q2. What are the challenges in IoT ?  

Ans. Challenges in IoT are: 

  • 1. Security 
  • 2. Privacy 
  • 3. Standards 
  • 4. Regulation 

Q3. What is smart card? 

Ans. A smart card is a physical card that has an embedded chip that acts as a security token. 

Q4. What is smart meter ?  

Ans. Smart meter is an electronic device that record consumption of electric energy. 

Q5. Mention some benefits of home automation. 

Ans. Benefits of home automation are: 

  • 1. Savings 
  • 2. Safety 
  • 3. Convenience 
  • 4. Control 
  • 5. Comfort  

Q6. What are the components of smart street lighting in smart city ?  

Ans. Components of smart street lighting in smart city are:

  • 1. Sensor circuit  
  • 2. 8-bit microcontroller
  • 3. Relay driver
  • 4. LED panel mode 
  • 5. ESP8266 (Wi-Fi modem) 
  • 6. Web server 

Q7. Define smart city. 

Ans. A smart city is a city that uses information and communication technologies (ICT) to improve the quality and performance of urban services. 

Q8. What is the aim of smart cities ?

Ans. The aim of smart cities is to promote cities that provide essential infrastructure and provide an acceptable standard of living for their residents.  

Q9. Define home automation. 

Ans. Home automation is a technological solution that allows the majority of electronic, electrical, and technology-based tasks in a home to be automated. 

Q10. What are the benefits of automation?

Ans. Benefits of automation are: 

  • 1. Reduce production cost 
  • 2. Reduce waste 
  • 3. Improve quality and reliability 
  • 4. Increase efficiency 

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