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Btech Hybrid Vehicle Propulsion KAU-072 Aktu Short Question, Notes Pdf

Investigate the B.Tech AKTU Quantum Book Short Question Notes on Hybrid Vehicle Propulsion. Discover the fundamentals of mixing conventional and electric power sources for efficient and sustainable vehicle propulsion.

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Unit-I: Introduction to Hybrid Electric Vehicle (Short Question)

Q1. What are electric vehicles ?

Ans. Electric cars are those that employ an electric motor for propulsion. One or more electric motors propel the vehicle, which is powered by an onboard source of electricity such as batteries, fuel cells, ultra capacitors, flywheels, and so on. 

Q2. What is the need of electric vehicles? 

Ans. The main reasons for the need of electric vehicles are: 

  • 1. Depletion of oil reserves, 
  • 2. Stringent emission standards, and
  • 3. Noise pollution.  

Q3. Write four advantages of electric vehicle over conventional vehicle. 

Ans. Advantages of electric vehicle are as follows:  

  • 1. Mechanically simpler. 
  • 2. Running cost per kilometre is extremely cheap. 
  • 3. Zero emission vehicle. 
  • 4. They are very quiet in operation. 

Q4. What are the disadvantages of electric vehicles? 

Ans. Disadvantages of electric vehicle are as follows: 

  • 1. Vehicle range is limited on one charge. 
  • 2. Top speed is limited.
  • 3. It is heavy and bulky.
  • 4. Limited public charging stations. 

Q5. Define drive range. 

Ans. Drive range is the distance a vehicle can go when the fuel tank is fully charged or the battery is fully charged. 

Q6. What do you mean by hybrid vehicles ? 

Ans. A hybrid vehicle is one that employs two or more distinct forms of power, such as submarines that surface with diesel and sink with batteries. 

Q7. What is the gradability? 

Ans. Gradability refers to a car’s ability to climb slopes. Gradability is expressed in either degrees or percentages. Gradability is affected by engine power, drive train type, gear ratio, weight, weight distribution, the centre of gravity of the vehicle, and traction. 

Q8. What is aerodynamic drag ?

Ans. A vehicle travelling at a specific speed in air encounters a force that opposes its motion. This force is known as aerodynamic drag. 

Q9. What are various types of transmission ?

Ans. Transmissions are often classified into two types: manual gear transmission and hydrodynamic transmission.  

Q10. What are advantages of steam-powered cars ?  

Ans. The advantages of steam-powered cars included high performance in terms of power and speed.

Q11. What are disadvantages of steam-powered cars ? 

Ans. The disadvantages of steam-powered cars included low fuel economy and the requirement to warm up the boiler before travelling. 

Q12. What is a conventional vehicle ? 

Ans. To power the wheels of conventional cars, an internal combustion engine powered by petrol or diesel is used. Electricity is used for several accessories but not for vehicle movement.  

Q13. What do you understand by vehicle system modelling ?

Ans. Vehicle system modelling portrays electric car components and embedded software as a prototype, allowing experimentation or simulation on the prototype to gain insight into actual vehicle performance. 

Unit-II: Hybrid Electric Drive Trains 2 (Short Question)

Q1. What are the advantages of series HEV ?

Ans. The advantages of a series HEV are as follows: 

  • 1. Flexibility of location of engine-generator set. 
  • 2. Simplicity of drive train. 
  • 3. Suitability for short trips. 

Q2. What are the disadvantages of series HEV ?  

Ans. The disadvantages of a series HEV are as follows: 

  • 1. It requires three components for propulsion: an ICE, a generator, and a motor. 
  • 2. The motor must be designed to provide the highest sustained power required by the vehicle. 

Q3. Mention advantages of parallel HEV. 

Ans. Following are the advantages of a parallel HEV: 

  • 1. It just requires two propulsion components: an ICE and a motor/generator. 
  • 2. A smaller engine and motor can be used to achieve the same performance until the batteries run out. 

Q4. Mention disadvantages of parallel HEV. 

Ans. Following are the disadvantages of a parallel HEV: 

  • 1. Because power flow from two parallel sources must be managed and blended, control complexity grows dramatically. 
  • 2. More expensive. 

Q5. What is the purpose of vehicle power train ?

Ans. Vehicle power train is required to: 

  • 1. Develop sufficient power to meet the demands of vehicle performance. 
  • 2. Carry sufficient energy onboard to support vehicle driving in the given range. 

Q6. What do you understand by traction system ? 

Ans. Traction system is a system that provides vehicle propulsion by obtaining tractive or driving power from various devices such as diesel engine drives, steam engine drives, electric motors, and so on. 

Q7. What is the purpose of generator in HEV ?

Ans. The generator is used to recover the vehicle’s kinetic energy when it is slowed by the application of brakes. 

Q8. What is meant by propulsion ?

Ans. The action or process of pushing or pulling to drive an item is referred to as propulsion. A propulsion system is made up of a mechanical power source and a propulsor. 

Q9. What is non-electric traction system ?

Ans. A non-electric traction system is a traction system that does not require electrical energy at any stage of vehicle movement. 

Q10. Mention various types of non-electric traction system.

Ans. The most popular non-electric traction systems are: 

  • 1. Steam engine drive. 
  • 2. Internal combustion (IC) engine drive or diesel engine drive. 

Q11. Classify electric traction system along with their examples. 

Ans. The electric traction system is classified into two groups as: 

  • 1. Self-contained vehicles or locomotives (for example, battery-electric and diesel-electric drive) 
  • 2. Vehicles or locomotives that receive electric power from a distribution network (for example, railway electric locomotives, tramways, and trolleybuses, among others). 

Q12. What are the advantages of straight electric traction system ?  

Ans. The straight electric traction system possesses the following advantages: 

  • 1. Because there is no smoke, ash, or other pollutants in this system, it is suited for underground railways. 
  • 2. This system has a strong beginning torque, as well as high acceleration and retardation.  

Q13. What are the disadvantages of straight electric traction system ?

Ans. The disadvantages of straight electric traction system include the following: 

  • 1. Due to the presence of overhead equipment, the capital cost is high. 
  • 2. Traction is tied to electric routes. 

Unit-III: Electric Propulsion Unit (Short Question)

Q1. What do you understand by brushless DC motor ?

Ans. A BLDC motor (brushless DC motor) is a controller and motor combination (it cannot run without a controller), and the controller accepts DC input. A BLDC motor may alternatively be referred to as a DC synchronous motor or an electronically commutated DC motor. 

Q2. What is induction motor drive?

Ans. Among commutatorless motor drives, induction motor drives are the most mature technology. When compared to DC motor drives, AC induction motor drives have several advantages, including light weight, compact volume, low cost, and high efficiency. These benefits are especially essential for EV and HEV applications. 

Q3. What are the types of induction motors ?  

Ans. There are two types of induction motors, namely, wound-rotor and squirrel cage motors. 

Q4. Mention advantages of DC motor. 

Ans. Advantages of DC motor are as follows: 

  • 1. DC motors are smaller in size.
  • 2. These motors operate on DC supply then they can be used in electronics devices. 
  • 3. DC motors are suitable for traction systems for driving heavy loads. 

Q5. Mention disadvantages of DC motor. 

Ans. Disadvantages of DC motor are as follows: 

  • 1. DC motors have a high initial cost. 
  • 2. Maintenance cost is high. 

Q6. What are the applications of switched reluctance motor drives ? 

Ans. These drives are appropriate for electric vehicles, electric traction applications, automotive applications, aviation starter/generator systems, mining drives, washing machines, door actuators, and other applications. 

Q7. Define switched reluctance motor drive.

Ans. Due to its low cost, tough structure, dependable converter architecture, high efficiency across a wide speed range, and ease of control, the switching reluctance motor (SRM) drive is regarded as an appealing alternative for variable speed motor drives.  

Q8. What are the requirements of EV motor ? 

Ans. The requirements of the EV motors are summarized as follows: 

  • 1. High torque at low speeds and climbing as well as high speed at low torques for cruising. 
  • 2. Very wide speed range including constant-torque and constant power regions. 
  • 3. Fast torque response. 
  • 4. High efficiency for regenerative braking.  

Q9. What are major components of electric vehicles?

Ans. Major components of electric vehicles are as follows: 

  • 1. Electric motor. 
  • 2. Batteries. 
  • 3. Electronic controller. 
  • 4. Transmission unit.  

Q10. What are the methods of speed control of DC motor ?

Ans. Methods of speed control of DC motor are as follows: 

  • 1. Armature voltage control method. 
  • 2. Field flux control method.  

Q11. What are various types of DC motor ?  

Ans. There are 4 major types of DC motor. They are:

  • 1. Series DC motor, 
  • 2. Shunt/parallel DC motor, 
  • 3. Compound DC motors, and 
  • 4. Permanent magnet DC motor. 

Unit-IV: Energy Storage (Short Question)

Q1. Briefly describe hybridization of different energy storage devices. 

Ans. The hybridization of energy storage is the process of combining two or more energy storages so that the advantages of each may be maximised and the downsides can be offset by others. 

Q2. What do you mean by energy storage?
Energy storage systems are a collection of methods and technologies for storing energy. The stored energy can be used to perform valuable operations at a later time. 

Q3. What is battery based energy storage ?  

Ans. A battery energy storage system (BESS) is an electrochemical device that charges (or gathers) energy from the grid or a power plant and then discharges that energy when electricity or other grid services are required. 

Q4. What are various energy storage technologies ?

Ans. Various energy storage technologies are as follows: 

  • 1. Electrochemical energy storage, 
  • 2. Chemical energy storage,
  • 3. Thermal energy storage, 
  • 4. Mechanical energy storage, and 
  • 5. Electrical energy storage. 

Q5. What are various levels of communication network ?  

Ans. A communication network is divided into three levels: device, network, and application. Communication network and application level.

Q6. Define fuel cell. 

Ans. A fuel cell is an electrochemical device that, like a battery, generates electricity through a chemical process. 

Q7. What is difference between batteries and fuel cells ?

Ans. The primary distinction between batteries and fuel cells is that the latter can generate electricity as long as fuel is available, whereas batteries generate electricity from stored chemical energy and so require periodic recharging. 

Q8. What are applications of fuel cells ?

Ans. Fuel cells provide energy for a variety of uses, including portable power sources and distributed generation of electricity.  

Q9. Mention advantages of nickel-cadmium battery.  

Ans. Advantages of nickel-cadmium battery are as follows: 

  • 1. Flat discharge voltage. 
  • 2. Long life. 
  • 3. Excellent reliability. 
  • 4. Low maintenance requirements. 

Q10. Mention disadvantages of nickel-cadmium battery.  

Ans. Disadvantages of nickel-cadmium battery are as follows: 

  • 1. High cost. 
  • 2. Toxicity contained in cadmium. 
  • 3. Developing insufficient power for EV and HEV applications. 

Q11. What are the advantages of flywheel ? 

Ans. Advantages of flywheel are as follows: 

  • 1. High power density. 
  • 2. Long cycle life. 
  • 3. No degradation over time. 
  • 4. Easily estimated state-of-charge. 
  • 5. Highest energy storage density. 

Q12. Mention advantages of ultra capacitor.

Ans. Advantages of ultra capacitor are as follows: 

  • 1. Deliver many times more power for weight than Li-ion batteries. 
  • 2. They have efficiencies of up to 98 %. 
  • 3. Unlimited cycle life (over 1 million cycles). 
  • 4. Tolerant of high temperatures. 

Q13. Mention disadvantages of ultra capacitor.

Ans. Disadvantages of ultra capacitor are as follows: 

  • 1. Low maximum voltage. 
  • 2. Extremely high capital cost.

Unit-V: Energy Management Strategies (Short Question)

Q1. What are the types of energy management strategies?

Ans. Types of energy management strategies are as follows: 

  • 1. Rule based method. 
  • 2. Optimization based method.  

Q2. Define rule based method used in hybrid vehicles. 

Ans. RBC approaches use a set of established rules to govern the system. They use upper and lower set points to control processes within specific bounds and are commonly used in HVAC subsystems for temperature control. 

Q3. Classify rule based method.  

Ans. The Rule Based strategies consist of following subcategories: 

  • i. Fuzzy Based: The fuzzy based control strategies are of three types: 
    • 1. Predictive, 
    • 2. Adaptive, and 
    • 3. Conventional.
  • ii. Deterministic Control: The deterministic controllers are subdivided into:
    • 1. State machine, 
    • 2. Power follower, and 
    • 3. Thermostat control.

Q4. Classify optimization based strategies.

Ans. The optimization based strategies are classified as given below: 

  • 1. Global optimization, and 
  • 2. Real time optimization

Q5. What are elements of energy management strategies ?

Ans. Energy management solutions include a smart panel, consumption metres, smart circuits, and a monitoring and control app. 

Q6. What are the advantages of energy management strategies? 

Ans. Advantages of energy management strategies are as follows: 

  • 1. Cost reduction. 
  • 2. Lowered carbon footprint. 
  • 3. Enhanced wellbeing and productivity. 
  • 4. Return-on-investment. 
  • 5. Improved brand image.  

Q7. Enumerate environmental advantages of hybrid electric vehicles. 

Ans. One of the most significant advantages of hybrid vehicles is that they consume less gasoline than traditional vehicles, resulting in lower emissions. When driven efficiently, this makes them greener, cleaner, and better for the environment.

Q8. Define energy management strategies.  

Ans. Our energy management strategy analyses all areas of our clients’ organisational exposure to energy-related risk in order to discover asset and operational energy efficiency potential.

Q9. What do you mean by plug-in hybrid electric vehicle?

Ans. A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is a hybrid electric vehicle with a battery pack that can be recharged outside by plugging a charging cable into an electric power source, as well as internally by its on-board internal combustion engine-powered generator.  

Q10. What are the types of global optimization method ?

Ans. The types of global optimization methods are as follows: 

  • 1. Linear programming methods, 
  • 2. Dynamic programming, 
  • 3. Stochastic dynamic programming, and
  • 4. Genetic algorithms. 

Q11. What are the types of real time optimization techniques ?

Ans. The real time optimization techniques are of following types: 

  • 1. EFC minimization, 
  • 2. Robust control, and 
  • 3. Model predictive. 

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