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AKTU Universal human values notes – Unit-2

We’ve come to investigate the AKTU’s universal human values. The top most important questions and human values notes, Btech, that may appear in your upcoming exams such as Btech, MCA, and others. HERE Human Value UNIT-2

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Important Questions For Universal Human Values : 
*Unit-01     *Unit-02    
*Unit-03    *Unit-04 
*Unit-05    *Short-Q/Ans
*Question-Paper with solution 21-22 

Q1. Do you think that human beings are a sum-total of sentiments and physical aspects the ‘self‘ and the ‘body’? Explain your answer using examples.


Same Question asked in Exams:

  • A human being is the co-existence of the self and body. Elaborate.
  • Explain the relation between the self and body. What is the responsibility of self towards the body?

1.  The coexistence of “I” and the body, along with the communication of information between the two, is the human person. In other words, “I” and the body coexist and are connected.

2. Information travels in both directions, from the “I” to the body and back again. In terms of the requirements, actions, and characteristics of these two entities, we can distinguish between the self and the body in three different ways.

3. While the demands of the body are physical necessities (suvidha), such as food, all of the wants of the “I,” such as respect, trust, etc., can be referred to as happiness (sukh).

4. The activities of the “I” are things like desire, thought, and choice, whereas the actions of the body are things like eating, breathing, and so forth.

5. Knowing, assuming, recognizing, and fulfilling are all parts of the “Imanner “‘s of engagement. Recognition depends on assumptions, and assumptions depend on knowing or not knowing, which in turn depends on fulfillment (beliefs).

6. Body interaction just consists of recognising and satisfying.

7. The self is a conscious entity, whereas the body is a material entity with physicochemical properties.

8. Thus, we can say:


Universal Human values Important Questions.

9. To summarise, the human being can be understood as the coexistence of two completely distinct entities, namely the sentient ‘I’ and the material body. Their needs and activities are very different, and they must be understood as such. However, these two human components must work in tandem. 

Q2. Distinguish between the activities going on in the self, going on in the body, and involving both the self and the body. Give two examples of each.

Ans. Understanding activities in the self and activities in the body:

1. If we look at the variety of activities that we are engaged in commonly – we see that we can put them in three categories:

i. Activities that are going on in the self.

ii. Activities that are going on in the body.

iii. Activities involving both the self and the body.

2. Activities in the self are:

  • i. Analyzing
  • ii. Imagining
  • iii. Dreaming
  • iv. Desiring
  • v. Understanding
  • vi. Feeling 
  • vii. Speaking
  • viii. Believing
  • ix. Thinking

3. These processes occur in us all the time, and we are usually unaware of them. We can become aware of them if we pay attention to them. We can also see that these activities occur regardless of the state of the body.

4.Activities involving both the self (I) and the body are:

We engage in some activities that involve both the ‘I’ and the body. Decisions and choices are made in the letter ‘T,’ and they are carried out by the body.These activities are:

  • i. Listening
  • ii. Seeing
  • iii. Talking
  • iv. Eating
  • v. Walking

5. Consider the act of eating. Here, I decide which food to eat first, then decide whether to take the food inside the body, use my hands to carry the food to the mouth, chew the food in the mouth, and then swallow it. Thus, eating is an activity that involves both the self (‘I’), where the decision is made, and the body, which performs the activity.

6. Activities in the body – but only with the consent of ‘I’:

The body is a collection of ‘self-organized activities’ that take place with my (I) consent but without my (I) active participation. These are functions like:

  • i. Nourishment
  • ii. Breathing
  • iii. Heart beat
  • iv. Blood flow
  • v. Digesting

Q3. How do we go into conflicts when our activities are not guided by our natural acceptance?

Ans. 1. When we are not guided by our natural acceptance, our activities are guided by preconditioning and sensations.

2. Preconditioning means that we have assumed something about our desires based on prevailing beliefs about them. We have not independently verified the desires..

3. A sensation is a perception that is associated with the stimulation of a sense organ or with a specific body condition, such as a heat sensation or a visual sensation.

4. Conflicts and Contradictions in ‘I’ as a Result of Preconditioned Desire:

i. We haven’t examined our own internal wants, ideas, and aspirations in light of our own innate acceptance. These aspirations, ideas, and decisions clash as a result. Because the desires are in conflict, so are the thoughts they give rise to, and consequently, so are the choices made from the thoughts.

ii. This conflict affects us in different manners:

a. Wavering aspirations: Our objectives are constantly changing, just as external inputs are constantly changing.

b. Lack of confidence: Since our desires are shaky, we are not sure about them.

c. Unhappiness/conflicts: Our conflicting wants, ideas, and expectations become the root of our discontent, causing stress and tension.

d. Lack of qualitative improvement in us: The requirements of the body take up a big portion of our attention. We consequently have a sense of unfulfillment in our daily lives.

e. State of resignation: We gradually begin to lose hope because we do not adequately understand ourselves and because we are internally contradictory.

5. Short-lived nature of pleasure from sensations :

i. The pleasure obtained from sensations is short-lived.

ii. The outside thing is transient in nature. The physical interaction between the external object and the body is just fleeting. The bodily experience that “I” am experiencing is fleeting. Finally, the flavor of the bodily sense in “I” is similarly fleeting. We want to be happy and want that enjoyment to last, therefore this is a constant need for the “I.”

iii. As a result, if the source of our happiness is, by definition, transient, our need for continuous happiness will never be met. As a result, any sensation we have from our bodies cannot be the source of our long-term happiness.

iv. We operate primarily on the basis of our surroundings, either through sensations or through preconditioning.

Q4. How self enjoys the activities of the body?

Ans. The Seer:

1. The Seer is the one who understands and is also known as the ‘Drasta’.

2. One sees through the eyes, but the eyes are the Self’s instruments.

3. It is the Self that instructs the eyes to see.

4. The eyes themselves do not process or comprehend the information they see.

5. It is the Self that analyses the information and understands it.

6. So one says, I saw it’.

7. In addition to seeing outside, the Seer can see inside without using his or her eyes.

8. In other words, the Seer can tell when someone is happy or sad, angry or upset.

9. The Self ‘sees’ and ‘understands’ through the body at times and without it at others.

The Doer:

1. The Doer is the one who does and is also known as the ‘Karta’.

2. The Self is the one who commands the Body to perform various tasks.

3. The Self instructs the Body to use its various parts to accomplish various tasks.

4. For example, the Self instructs the Body to eat, and the Body then places food in the mouth, chews it, and swallows it.

5. So one says, ‘I ate the food’.

6. The Self makes the decisions, and the Body acts in accordance with the Self’s wishes.

7. Thus, the Self is the Doer and the action is expressed through the Body.

The Enjoyer :

1. The Enjoyer is the one who enjoys and is also known as the ‘Bhokta’.

2. When an action is performed, such as eating delicious food, it is the Self who enjoys it.

3. The body has simply served as a tool for putting food into the mouth and chewing it.

4. The enjoyment is done by the Self. ‘I enjoyed the food,’ says one.

5. One can safely conclude that being the Seer, the Doer, and the Enjoyer are all interconnected.

6. All are aspects of the Self, and the Body is simply an instrument for carrying out the Self’s desires.

Q5. How harmony in an individual is possible?

Ans. 1. Harmony in the Self leads to harmony at all levels of being. This understanding is necessary for each of us to live a life of fulfillment and continuous happiness. The 4-step process that leads to harmony in the Self is :

ii. Becoming aware that a human is the co-existence of Self/I and the Body.

ii. Becoming aware that the Body is only an instrument of the Self / I. I is the seer, doer and enjoyer, not the Body.

iii. Becoming conscious of the Self’s activities – Desires, Thoughts, and Expectations – and then putting these Desires, Thoughts, and Expectations to the test of your own natural acceptance.

iv. Understand harmony at all levels of existence, which leads to realization and understanding, which leads to a sense of certainty in our desires, thoughts, and expectations.

2. This achievement of harmony results in a smooth flow with no contradictions or conflicts. As a result, we have a better understanding of ourselves, our basic aspirations, and how we can achieve these aspirations.

3. As a result, we have a better understanding of everything around us and our relationships with everyone. This brings us to the svatantrata state, in which we become self-organized in our imagination, behavior, and work, resulting in continuous happiness and prosperity.

Q6. How does the feeling of sanyam ensure health of the body? List two programs of sanyam?

Ans.  The upkeep, defence, and proper use of the body are all the duty of the self. For this, one must adhere to certain plans. To ensure the body’s health and better our understanding of how it organises itself, we must labour.

1. Nurturing of the Body:

Proper Food, Air, Water, Etc: In the process of selecting food for the body, I must identify the components that comprise a complete food that provides the body with the necessary nutrients and energy. Based on our understanding of the harmony of the self with the body, we can conclude that food should be consumed only when we are hungry. The food must be chosen in such a way that it is easily digestible, and it must be consumed with proper body posture and in the appropriate quantity.

2. Protection of the Body:

Body protection is the second problem. We must ensure proper body interaction with the environment using the clothing we chose for protection. The body needs to be exposed to the air, water, and sun in the proper amounts to ensure that it functions properly. To ensure the health of the Body, we need to take care of the following: (i) Ahar-Vihar, (ii) Shram- Vyayam, (iii) Asana-Pranayam and (iv) Aushadhi-Chikitsa. We have already discussed about Ahar (Food), let us now discuss about the others:

i. Proper upkeep (Vihar) of the Body: The body becomes fatigued as we work. The body gets better at working when we take a break. But once more, the quantity of labour and rest we require has a limit. We also need to make sure that we work and rest at the right times and in the right positions. For the Body to operate properly, sanitary conditions must be provided. The maintenance of the Body includes addressing these concerns.

ii. Labour: Another requirement is labour. It refers to physically using the body to produce and maintain physical facilities. Each aspect of the body benefits from our labour in that it functions appropriately.

iii. Physical Exercises: We are aware of the importance of physical activity. While working, some parts of the body may be overworked while others may not be. We can use exercises to employ all of the parts of the body in the desired manner.

iv. Asan-Pranayam : This is yet another way to keep the body running smoothly. We give the body proper postures by sitting or lying in Asanas, and we regulate the breathing in Pranayam.

v. Treatment of the body: Despite our best efforts, the body may require treatment at times. There are several approaches that can be taken to ensure this. It is possible that simply going without food for a period of time will cure the body. Food selection can also help. Treatment of the body can also be accomplished through proper exposure to air, water, or sun. The use of herbs or medicines may also be beneficial. One thing to understand here is that the body’s system works in a self-organized manner, and I only need to facilitate that self-organization by arranging for material things.One thing to take care about is that while curing the Body of one problem, we need to choose ways which do not give rise to other problems.

3. Right utilization of the body (Sadupyog): Understanding the goal for which the Body is to be utilised as an instrument is necessary for proper instrumentation. Typically, we have a tendency to think of the body as a sensory instrument, but this is untrue. We occasionally use our bodies to take advantage of other people or the rest of nature, which is also an improper use. Realizing that the human body is a tool for facilitating appropriate knowledge and its actualization in life is crucial. I also need to set up the tools and equipment necessary for proper body usage. They improve the body’s capacity and effectiveness.

Universal Human Value Important questions answer pdf

Important Questions For Universal Human Values -B.Tech AKTU

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human values notes – Unit-1UNIT-1
human values notes – Unit-2UNIT-2
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human values notes – Unit-4UNIT-4
human values notes – Unit-5Unit-5
human Values Short Questionsshort-questions
human values Question-paper2021-22

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