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Q1. What do you mean by interview? What are the objectives of interview ?
Ans. 1. An interview is a psychological and sociological instrument.
2. It is an interaction between two or more persons for a specific purpose, in which the interviewer asks the interviewee specific questions in order to assess his / her suitability for recruitment, admission, or promotion.
3. It is a systematized method of contact with a person to know his/her views and is regarded as the most important method of data collection.
Objectives of interview :
- i. To select a person for a specific task.
- ii. To monitor performance.
- iii. To collect information.
- iv. To exchange information.
- v. To counsel.
Q2. What are the different types of group discussion ?
Ans. Different types of group discussion :
1. Based on the method of conduct : Based on the method of conduct, group discussions can be further classified into the following :
i. Structured group discussion :
a. In structured group discussion, the topic is given to the participants by the selectors and a time-frame is allotted to complete the discussion.
b. This is the most commonly followed technique for a group discussion.
ii. Unstructured group discussion :
a. In unstructured group discussions, unlike in the case of structured group discussions, the candidates themselves decide the topic with mutual consent.
b. This formal method of group discussions is rarely used.
iii. Role play group discussion :
a. In role group discussion, the candidates are given specific roles to play in the backdrop of a given situation.
b. Within the framework of their role, the participants have to solve the problems inherent in the situation given to them.
iv. Group discussion with a nominated leader:
a. Generally, no-one is nominated as leader of a group discussion and all participants are treated as equal.
b. In this type of a group discussion, a person is nominated as a facilitator or a leader of the group.
c. He may summarize the discussion or solutions discussed at the end of the group discussion.
d. Sometimes the leader is nominated by the group members themselves.
2. Based on nature of the topic : Group discussions can also be categorized based on the topic allotted for the discussion to the participants.
i. Controversial topics :
a. These are topics which are controversial and which have the potential to generate an argument.
b. Such topics generally make the discussion lively as arguments and counter arguments are presented.
c. This gives the evaluators more opportunities to evaluate the candidates.
d. Examples of such topics include ‘Should the examination system be scrapped’ or ‘How ethical is cloning?’.
ii. Abstract topics :
a. There is a growing trend of assigning abstract topics, i.e., topics which are vague or unclear.
b. These topics enable the evaluators to evaluate the creative ability of the candidates.
c. Every candidate can have his own interpretation of the topic.
d. Examples of such topics are ‘Zero’, ‘One and one make eleven’.
iii. Case study topics :
a. In case study topic, a situation is provided to the participants which may depict a problem faced by the organization or the managers.
b. Participants need to analyze the situation and think of various alternatives to solve the problem.
c. This kind of a group discussion tests the ability of the candidate to think of solutions keeping the situational factors and constraints in mind.
Q3. What do you mean by argumentation? Describe the key to improve argumentation skills.
Ans. 1. Argumentation is the thought process used to develop and present arguments.
2. It is closely related to critical thinking and reasoning.
The keys to improve our argumentation skills are :
1. Don’t forget to remain calm at all times :
a. It is important to try not to get upset and always maintain a relaxed attitude in a supportive environment.
b. We have to remember at all times that an argument is simply a contrast between two points of view.
2. Arguing well is the same as building or creating: We can learn a lot from a good conversation, even when we don’t agree with the points of view of the other person.
3. Imposition is completely the opposite of adequate arguing: The conversation should be governed by understanding and mutual agreement.
4. Active listening is necessary to any discussion :
a. Monologues, no matter how well-founded they may be, don’t have to be accepted by the listener.
b. It is much more productive to understand other points of view and to be able to contrast them with we own.
c. This way we will find common ground and mutual understanding.
5. Forgiveness and apologizing are the perfect tools to a good
a. These keys are especially necessary in conversations between partners, friends and family members.
b. It is of no use to pressure someone into positions that no one is comfortable with.
c. Pay attention to what each person has done wrong, and rectify.
Q4. Write a short note on emphasis.
- 1. Emphasis is the stress given to a word or words when speaking to indicate particular importance.
- 2. Emphasis is extra force that we put on a syllable. word, or phrase when we are speaking in order to make it seem more important.
- 3. In writing and speech, the emphasis is the repetition of keywords and phrases or the careful arrangement of words to give them special weight and prominence.
- 4. In the delivery of a speech, emphasis may also refer to the intensity of expression or the stress put on the words to indicate their importance or special significance.
Q5. Describe the modes of discourse.
Ans. There are four traditional modes of discourse :
1. Narration :
- i. It involves relating a series of events, usually in a chronological order.
- ii. Thus, a simple narrative may begin with “Once upon a time … “and end with “and they lived happily ever after.”
- iii. The events narrated may be fictional (a made up story) or nonfictional (the events really occurred).
- iv. However, we usually reserve the title “story” for fiction. If the events actually happened, we give the writing another name such as biography, autobiography, history, after action report, or newspaper report.
- v. For example, there is a genre called “historical fiction” that may more or less accurately portray an historical event while making up a story about real or fictional characters involved in that event.
- vi. One well known example is “Gone With the Wind,” the story of Scarlet O’Hara and Rhett Butler during the American Civil War.
2. Description :
- i. It tells what things are like according to the five senses.
- ii. A descriptive essay, or a descriptive passage in a story, tells how things look, sound, feel, taste, and smell.
- iii. Nouns and adjectives can show what a person, place, or thing are like in their material aspects.
- iv. Description often tries to do more than to enable readers to visualize characters, settings, and actions.
- v. It may also try to evoke a mood or atmosphere, and this is aided by the use of simile and metaphor.
- i. It is the kind of writing that is used to inform.
- ii. The prefix “Ex-” comes from Greek through Latin and means “out, or away from.” The root of the word comes from the Latin verb ponere which means “to place.”
- iii. So translated literally, exposition means “to place out,” and, of course, the thing that is placed out for us to see and understand is information.
- iv. This mode of writing has several subtypes, the most common being process analysis, definition, classification and division, comparison and contrast, cause and effect, and problem and solution.
- v. These are distinguished by purpose, as the names indicate, but also by structure or organization.
- vi. For example, an experienced writer understands that an essay that compares and contrasts, or that describes a problem and presents a solution, each has its own conventional pattern of organization and that once readers recognize the intended mode, they also expect the writer to follow the organizational conventions associated with it.
4. Argument :
- i. The purpose of argument is to convince through logic.
- ii. An argument is based on a belief or opinion that the writer holds as true. The statement of this opinion is called a “thesis.” It is usually presented explicitly near the beginning of the argument.
- iii. To convince readers that his opinion is true, the writer must build a case to support the thesis.
- iv. Building a case requires presenting reasons for accepting the thesis, and then presenting evidence to support the reasons.
- v. If the reader accepts the reasons and the evidence, then he should agree with the thesis.
Q6. Write a short note on
i. Socio-linguistic competence
ii. Strategic competence
Ans. i. Socio-linguistic competence:
- 1. Socio-linguistic competence is the knowledge of socio-cultural rules of use, i.e., knowing how to use and respond to language appropriately.
- 2. The appropriateness depends on the setting of the communication, the topic, and the relationships among the people communicating.
- 3. Moreover, being appropriate depends on knowing what the restriction of the other culture are, what politeness indices are used in each case, what the politically correct term would be for something, how a specific attitude (authority, friendliness, courtesy, irony etc.) is expressed etc.
ii. Strategic competence:
- 1. Strategic competence is the ability to recognise and repair communication breakdowns before, during, or after they occur.
- 2. For instance, the speaker may not know a certain word, thus will plan to either paraphrase, or ask what that word is in the target language.
- 3. During the conversation, background noise or other factors may hinder communication; thus the speaker must know how to keep the communication channel open.
- 4. If the communication was unsuccessful due to external factors (such as interruptions), or due to the message being misunderstood, the speaker must know how to restore communication.
- 5. These strategies may be requests for repetition, clarification, slower speech, or the usage of gestures, taking turns in conversation etc.
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