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Unit 5 Technical Communication – Oral Communication & Voice Dynamics for AKTU B.Tech.

The Most Important Question in Unit-5 ORAL COMMUNICATION & VOICE DYNAMICS- Technical communication, Btech AKTU and other universities. giving crucial questions with solutions,syllabus,short Question with answer, as well as study tools to assist students succeed in the test.

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Important Questions For Technical Communication : 
*Unit-01     *Unit-02    
*Unit-03    *Unit-04 
*Unit-05    *Short-Q/Ans
*Question-Paper with solution 21-22 

Q1. Describe code and content in communication skills.

Ans. i. Any human communication system involves the production of a message by someone, and the receipt of that message by someone else.

ii. To encode a message, one must possess the necessary encoding skills. 

1. Languages are codes :

  • i. A code may be defined as any group of symbols that can be structured in a way that is meaningful to another person.
  • ii. The English language, like any other language, is a code which contains elements that are arranged in a meaningful order.
  • iii. A code has a group of elements (vocabulary) and a set of procedures for combining these elements meaningfully (syntax).

2. Content:

  • i. The message content, i.e., the message that is selected by the source to express its purpose.
  • ii. Content, like codes, has both element and structure. When more than one piece of information is to be presented, they should have some order or structure.
  • iii. An individual may sometimes be identified by his characteristic way of structuring messages. This is because the individual communicates in a way that is distinctive to him.
  • iv. An individual uses a distinctive way or method, which has become his habit by constant use.

Q2. Describe key attributes for pronunciation etiquette.

Ans. To develop proficiency in speaking skills, proper attention should be given to pronunciation etiquette.

Key attributes of pronunciation etiquette are:

  • 1. Make eye contact while speaking. This will not only gives us confidence, but will also inspire others to listen.
  • 2. Try to make voice sound pleasing and soft.
  • 3. Do not speak in a monotonous voice; this might have a sleepy effect on the audience. Change the modulation of the voice occasionally.
  • 4. Even if feeling nervous, never show it to the audience; just slow down your speech and remain calm.
  • 5. Do not mumble and speak clearly.
  • 6. Use of words which are clear to understand.
  • 7. Use proper body language to show interest in the ongoing conversation.
  • 8. At the end of the conversation, do not forget the customary etiquette of thanking the audience for listening patiently.

Q3. What are the essentials of effective Speaking?

Ans. Essentials of effective speaking are:

1. Clarity of purpose: Know whether you want to inform, persuade, or entertain the audience.

2. Audience awareness: Find about who will be your audience, their background, age, gender, education, status, interest.

3. Familiarity with the location: Know where you need to deliver the speech: the audio equipment, the position of lectern, lighting, etc. 

4. Collection and selection of content: Collect as much material as possible for your topic and select according to the focus of the topic and the time given.

5. Outlining: Frame topics and subtopics for your speech.

6. Organization of content: Introduction, main body, conclusion. 

7. Selection of suitable mode of delivery: Extempore, reading from text (to be carried out with adequate practice), speaking from memory (to be avoided).

Q4. Explain various dimensions of speech.

Ans. Various dimensions of speech are:

1. Accent (Way of pronunciation):

  • i. Accent is the way of pronouncing the words of a language that shows the person belongs to which country, area or social class. 
  • ii. Accent is a manner of pronunciation peculiar to a particular individual, location, or nation. The region to which we belong affects our accent.
  • iii. It is an important factor whether English is our first language or second language.

2. Pitch (Loudness):

  • i. Pitch is a property that allows the ordering of sounds on a frequency- related scale.
  • ii. Pitches are compared as “higher” and “lower”.
  • iii. The rise and fall of the voice conveys various emotions.
  • iv. A well balanced pitch results in a clear and effective tone. It helps us to avoid being monotonous.

3. Rhythm (Sound pattern achieved by using stress in words) : 

  • i. Rhythm refers to a pattern of sounds.
  • ii. Maintaining a rhythm in a speech makes the speech sound natural and fluent.
  • iii. Rhythm is produced by stressed and unstressed words in a sentence. 
  • iv. To achieve good rhythm in speaking we should know which words to be stressed and which are not to be stressed in a sentence.

4. Intonation (Variation of pitch or loudness of the words in a sentence):

  • i. The intonation in a language refers to the patterns of pitch variation or the tones it uses in its utterances.
  • ii. In normal speech, the pitch of our voice goes on changing constantly i.e., going up, going down, and sometimes remaining steady. 
  • iii. Different pitches of the voice combine to form patterns of pitch variation or tones, which together constitute intonation.
  • iv. Intonation is closely linked to stress because important changes in pitch occur with stressed syllables.

Q5. Describe different modes of speech delivery. Write its advantages and disadvantages.
| OR |
Write a short note on essential nuances of speech delivery.

Ans. There are four modes of speech delivery:

i. Extemporaneous :

  • 1. Extemporaneous presentation is the most popular and effective method when carefully prepared.
  • 2. When speaking extempore, we must prepare the note beforehand and rehearse our presentation.
  • 3. There is no need to learn every word and line by rote.
  • 4. Our presentation will sound quite spontaneous to the audience, as after thorough preparation, we are speaking while thinking. 
  • 5. This is the result of careful planning and exact practice, where we collect the material and organize it carefully.

Advantages of extemporaneous mode :

  • 1. Extemporaneous mode presents the theme in the best-possible, structured way.
  • 2. Thorough preparation on our part makes us feel secure and we carry out our responsibility with great assurance.
  • 3. Extemporaneous mode helps for appropriate selection of quotations, illustrations, statistics, etc., and to substantiate our point.
  • 4. It enables one to move freely, with ease.

Disadvantages of extemporaneous mode :

  • 1. If preparation is inadequate, we can get lost and find our self uncomfortable.
  • 2. If we rely too much on note cards and start reading out from them instead of just consulting them for reference, then our speech will lose its spontaneity.

ii. Manuscript:

  • 1. In manuscript presentation, material is written out and we are supposed to read it out aloud precisely.
  • 2. We are not supposed to memorize the speech and then recollect it. 
  • 3. It is there in front of us to read. But, we should be wise enough not to attempt to read a speech until we have become a proficient reader.
  • 4. We could rehearse with a friend or colleague.
  • 5. For effective use of this mode, we should have gone through the material several times beforehand till we become absolutely familiar with the text.
  • 6. We should strive to choose material designed to achieve understanding. Do cultivate familiarity with speech/text.
  • 7. We should know what is written where.

Advantages of manuscript mode :

  • 1. It is a permanent and accurate record of whatever we have to say. 
  • 2. There is no chance of tampering with facts and figures.
  • 3. The material is organized systematically.
  • 4. Language gets polished because we can write and rewrite the material until we feel satisfied on all counts.

Disadvantages of manuscript mode :

  • 1. As we will be reading from the manuscript, we get less time for making proper eye contact.
  • 2. Since we are reading to the audience, we cannot talk to them. There is not much scope either for non-verbal communication. Adaptation is difficult.

iii. Impromptu :

  • 1. The impromptu mode, is used when we have to deliver an informal speech without preparation.
  • 2. For example, at a formal dinner party we may be invited to deliver a vote of thanks.
  • 3. Do not panic and babble something in an unmethodical way. 
  • 4. Instead, calmly state the topic and then preview the points we have to make.
  • 5.Support the points with whatever examples, quotes, and we recall at that time.
  • 6. Then briefly summarize or restate the points and conclude with a smile.
  • 7. Remember, it is not difficult for us to anticipate certain occasions where we may be asked to speak a few words.
  • 8. Be as brief as possible during impromptu presentations. 

Advantages of impromptu mode :

  • 1. We sound very natural because we do not get enough time to make any elaborate preparation.
  • 2. We get a chance to express our thoughts irrespective of what others think or say about that particular topic.
  • 3. We are spontaneous as we say what we feel, not what we ought to say.

Disadvantages of impromptu mode :

  • 1. The presentation lacks organized development of ideas because of the shortage of time.
  • 2. There is no supplementary material (data, statistics, illustrations, figures) to substantiate the speech.
  • 3. Chances of rambling are very high. Various points may hang loose. 
  • 4. There is frequent use of vocalized pauses.

iv. Memorization :

  • 1. This method of presentation is very difficult for most people. 
  • 2. Probably, only a handful of we can actually memorize an entire speech. 
  • 3. Usually we memorize only the main parts and are in the habit of writing key words on cards to help us out through the actual presentation.
  • 4. This type of delivery stands somewhere between extemporaneous and manuscript presentation.
  • 5. Speech is written beforehand, then committed to memory, and finally delivered from memory.

Advantages of memorization mode :

  • 1. It is very easy for such speakers to maintain an eye contact with the audience throughout the presentation.
  • 2. The speaker can easily move and make use of appropriate non- verbal communication to add extra value to the speech.
  • 3. It is possible to finish the speech in allotted time.

Disadvantages of memorization mode :

  • 1. Memorization requires too much of time.
  • 2. There are chances of making it a dull and monotonous presentation because we go exactly by whatever we have memorized.
  • 3. Even our mnemonic skills fail us if we have not rehearsed adequately.
  • 4. No flexibility or adaptation is possible during the speech.
  • 5. The speaker gets flustered if he forgets a word, sentence, or a whole paragraph.

Q6. What is the importance of speech in personality development?

Ans. In personality development, the importance of speech is divided into two parts:

1. Gaining positive perception from others:

  • i. Human often judge others by what they see.
  • ii. We easily have our own perception on what is going on around us. In the same way, our perception of others can be influenced by the way they speak and the message they are trying to relay.
  • iii. This is one of the reasons why speech is very important in personality development.
  • iv. If we are careful with our speech, whether formal or informal, we can gain a positive perception from our peers, colleagues, and our superiors.
  • v. If we are fond of using negative words, For example, people will tend to think that we have a bad personality. On the other hand, if we talk with grace, and confidence, then it is common for others to. perceive us as someone with a pleasing personality.

2. Putting into words our thoughts and ideas through oral expression:

  • i. It is, without doubt, very difficult to improve our personality if we cannot even verbalize what it is we want to say.
  • ii. If we hesitate to speak on fear of being misjudged by others, if we are too shy and scared to open our mouth in a gathering, it will really be difficult for us to develop our personality.
  • iii. Part of our development is derived from what we learn from others, but if we have poor oral communication skills and refuse to do something about it, then we are blocking the doors for growth. 
  • iv. Being able to express ourselves through speech is essential to build relationships with people, but if we keep on holding back and decline any opportunity to improve, then nothing good will ever come out of it.

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