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Q1. Describe various types of reports.
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What is report ? How many types of reports are there ? Describe all in details.
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How many types of reports are there ? Describe all in detail.
1. A report is an official document that presents fact, their analysis and decisions and recommendations derived on the basis of facts/data collected by an individual.
2. A report is thus the watchword of modern industrial word.
3. All professionals like engineers, scientists prepare their report that helps the executives in decision making.
Reports vary in style, subject matter and presentation.
Reports can be classified on various parameters such as :
1. Presentation : Oral and written reports
2. Length : Short and long reports
3. Nature : Informal and formal reports
4. Purpose : Informational and analytical reports
5. Time duration : Routine/periodic and special reports
Various types of reports are :
1. Oral reports :
a. An oral report is a face-to-face communication about something seen, observed, experienced or investigated.
b. It generally consists of impressions, observations and experiences.
2. Written reports :
a. A written report is accurate and precise.
b. A written report provides a permanent record.
c. There are no chances of distortion of facts while transferring information from one source to another.
3. Short reports :
a. Short reports can be presented in the form of a letter or a memo.
b. They are concerned primarily with day-to-day business problems as well as their solutions.
4. Long reports :
a. Long reports describe a problem in detail.
b. They include the process of preparing the outline of the topic, collecting data, making a rough draft, logical and organized presentation of facts, thorough revising, editing and preparing the fair draft, etc.
c. These reports require a deep study of an issue.
5. Formal reports :
a. A formal report is the result of thorough investigation of a problem or situation.
b. Formal reports are generally detailed and elaborated.
c. These reports follow a fixed format.
d. The length of the report may vary according to the requirement.
e. Formal reports include informational, analytical, routine, special, technical, project, research reports, etc.
6. Informal reports :
a. Certain business reports can be short and informal.
b. In current business dealings, informal reports are more frequent than the formal ones.
c. Basically, informal reports perform the same function as the formal reports-transmitting information, facts of data to someone for taking decision. For example,
i. Memo reports
ii. Letter reports
7. Informational reports :
a. An informational report presents facts, situations or problems required to take vital decisions.
b. Informational reports record happenings such as conferences, seminars, tours, and so on and supply details for future planning.
8. Analytical reports :
a. Analytical reports present data along with an analysis of it.
b. Project reports, feasibility reports and market research reports fall in this category. For example,
i. Project reports
ii. Feasibility reports
iii. Market research reports
9. Routine/Periodic reports :
a. Routine reports also known as form reports are usually written on a prescribed performa.
b. The main purpose of these reports is to record the progress of a task, evaluate the performance of its employees and to record the success or failure of a policy.
c. All the organizations, institutions, companies and research establishments depend on routine reports for various decisions.
Some of them are :
i. Laboratory reports
ii. Progress reports
Ill. Inspection reports
iv. Production reports
v. Monthly sales reports
vi. Annual confidential reports
10. Special reports :
a. Special reports are written to convey special information related to a single condition, situation, occasion or problem.
b. These reports do not contain repeated information as they are written about the specific situations. For example,
i. Inquiry reports
ii. Research reports
Q2. Write a note on the characteristics of a good report.
Ans. The characteristics of a report are as follows :
1. Precision :
a. A report has to include lot of information in limited space.
b. It is read in turn by people who have limited time at their hands~
c. The information given in a report influences the crucial decision making in a firm.
d. For these reasons, a report should clearly indicate its purpose. I
e. A report should precisely state the writer’s investigation, analysis, and recommendations.
a. Any information included in a report should be based on facts and facts only.
b. Support facts with research evidence or other sources (for example, newspaper report on same topic).
c. Inaccurate facts will lead to error in decision-making.
3. Relevance :
a. All information which is related and relevant to the main idea of the report should be included.
b. A report should be precise and brief: yet all relevant information should be included.
c. It should be relevant from reader’s point of view.
4. Reader oriented :
a. The writer may know a lot about the topic or theme on which the report is based.
b. But when writing the report one must keep in mind what does the reader need to know (to arrive at a decision) rather than what the report writer may know about it.
5. Objectivity of recommendations :
a. Any suggestions made in the report should be free of writer’s own personal views.
b. The report should be impartial and objective.
c. The objective of writing the report is to enhance productivity or business growth and not the writer’s self-interest.
6. Simple and clear :
a. The language used while writing the report should be simple.
b. Technical words should either be avoided or, if used, should be taken care that the readers are familiar with them.
c. A glossary listing the full forms of abbreviated words and meanings of technical words can be added at the end of the report.
d. To bring about clarity, ideas should be arranged systematically.
e. The writer should make his purpose of writing the report clear, specify the sources, state the findings, and, finally, make recommendations.
a. It means being brief.
b. A writer needs to strike the right balance.
c. The report should be as brief as possible yet complete.
d. If the topic is vast, then it is more important to be detailed.
e. However, brevity should not be done at the cost of clarity.
f. So, the motto should be ‘include everything significant and yet be brief’.
8. Grammatical accuracy :
a. Grammatical errors are like faulty speech.
b. They distract the reader’s attention.
c. It also indicates lack of seriousness on the part of the writer.
d. It gives a very bad impression of the writer.
e. It looks non-business to present a report having avoidable errors. Now a days these are especially easy to avoid due to provision of ‘spell check’ functions in MS-word.
9. Special format, illustrations, and documentation :
a. Reports usually follow a particular layout.
b. All parts of the structure of a report should be included which are useful for that topic/purpose.
c. Supporting the written words with illustrations like charts, tables, diagrams, figures, photographs, is helpful and adds to the visual appeal.
d. However, these are not compulsory.
e. The report should carry references and other sources from where the information is gatHered.
f. This kind of documentation brings scientific and authentic feel to the report.
10. Homogeneity : The report should be written on one topic.
Q3. Explain the term thesis/project writing with its importance.
Ans. 1. A thesis is a long research report.
2. The report concerns a problem or series of problem in a particular area of research. It describes . what was known about it previously, the progress made by the current work in solving it, an interpretation of the results, and where or· how further progress in the field can be made.
3. A thesis should be written in such a way that the topic is clear to a reader who has not spent years thinking about it.
4. The thesis will also be used as a scientific report and consulted by future workers in the laboratory who will want to know, in detail, the work performed. These are occasionally consulted by people from other institutions, and the library sends electronic versions if requested. More commonly, these are now stored in an entirely digital form, as .pdf files on a server at the university.
Importance of thesis writing :
1. First, the writer develops a thesis to create a focus on main idea. It is important for the writer to be able to write the main idea in a few sentences to create a clear idea for the paper. Not only does the thesis guide the reader, but also the writer. The thesis provides direction to help the writer keep their paper organized.
2. Second, having a well-crafted thesis statement helps the reader to understand the main idea. The thesis statement sets the reader up for the rest of the essay. Usually at the end of the introduction paragraph, the thesis leads into the body paragraph, which provides evidence and ideas to back up the thesis.
3. The thesis statement is important because it tells the audience what they will be reading about.
Q4. Explain technical research paper writing. Write its characteristics.
Ans. 1. A technical research paper writing is a formal report that is written mainly to disseminate new knowledge acquired through research.
2. The audience of a research paper might choose not to read a research paper.
Characteristics of technical research paper writing are :
1. A research paper is the most important form of expository discourse. It may be written on any topic or subject-scientific, technical, social, cultural, etc., but the treatment is scholarly in nature.
2. It is highly stylized and contains a high concentration of certain writing techniques such as definition, classification, interpretation, abstraction, and description.
3. It is objective in nature and the presentation of information is accurate, concise, direct, and unambiguous.
4. Generally, it contains almost all the formal elements that technical report includes.
5. Most research papers are characterized by the use of visual aids, and scientific, technical, or specialized vocabulary.
Q5. What are the methods and styles of research paper writing?
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How do we write a research paper? Illustrate .
Ans. 1. Descriptive design:
a. It seeks to describe the current status of a variable or phenomenon.
b. The researcher does not begin with a hypothesis, but typically develops one after the data is collected.
c. Data collection is mostly observational in nature.
2. Correlational design :
a. It explores the relationship between variables using statistical analyses.
b. However, it does not look for cause and effect and therefore, is also mostly observational in terms of data collection.
3. Quasi-experimental design (causal-comparative):
a. It seeks to establish a cause-effect relationship between two or more variables.
b. The researcher does not assign groups and does not manipulate the independent variable.
c. Control groups are identified and exposed to the variable.
d. Results are compared with results from groups not exposed to the variable.
4. Experimental designs (true experimentation) :
a. It uses the scientific method to establish cause-effect relationship among a group of variables in a research study.
b. Researchers make an effort to control for all variables except the one being manipulated (the independent variable).
c. The effects of the independent variable on the dependent variable are collected and analyzed for a relationship.
Q6. What is a proposal? Describe various objectives of writing proposals.
Ans. 1. Proposal is derived from the word “propose” which means “to put forward”, “to suggest”.
2. Proposal is an act of proposing, or anything proposed.
3. It is a form of business letter or a formal report written to draw the attention of the public to any issue.
4. Proposal is nothing but a way to sell one’s ideas.
5. The main objective of writing a proposal is persuasion.
6. It is the first step towards a new business.
7. The aim of a proposal is to bring new benefits to the organization and it may be used. within as well as outside the organization.
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|Technical Communication Question Paper
|Question Paper 2021-22
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