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(Aktu Btech) Sensor and Transducers Important Unit-5 Smart Sensors

Explore the realm of Sensor and Transducers with the B.Tech AKTU Quantum Book. Access vital notes, repeated questions, and key knowledge for mastering this critical area. Unit-5 Smart Sensors

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Q1. Explain smart sensors. 


  • 1. A smart sensor is essentially an acronym for “Sensing, Monitoring, and Remote Transmission.”
  • 2. It can be analogue or digital in nature, and it can be paired with a processing unit and a communication interface. These sensors are capable of producing an electrical output.
  • 3. When paired with appropriate interface devices, these sensors are referred to as intelligent sensors.
  • 4. It is a microprocessor-based sensor that can conduct one or more functions such as logical functions, decision making, two-way communication, and so on. It can be simply expressed as, 

Sensors + Suitable interfacing circuits = Smart sensors  

  • 5. Smart sensors differ from traditional sensors in that they have special functions such as ranging, calibration, connectivity with other devices, and so on. 

Q2. What are the advantages of smart sensors ?


  • 1. No need of bulk cables and connectors: Because smart sensors are electronic circuits, there is no need for bulk cabling and connectors, lowering the overall cost of the system.
  • 2. Digital communication: Smart sensors can provide digital communication due to their integrated design. They also include a self-test or diagnostic facility.
  • 3. Enhanced features: Smart sensors have improved functions such as self-computation, fault diagnostics, duplex communication, multi sensing, and so on. As a result, they will be favoured in all types of control systems.
  • 4. Reliability: The sensors are more dependable to use because of their reduced wiring and ability to conduct self-test and diagnostics.
  • 5. Higher SNR: Smart sensors solve the electrical characteristic issues that plague traditional sensors. Because long transmission cables are not used, there is no noise interference with smart sensors. 
  • 6. Improved characteristics: A smart sensor’s significant properties include improved linearity as compared to conventional non-linear characteristics, reduced cross-sensitivity, reduced offset, and autonomous operation. 

Q3. Explain the characteristics of smart sensors.

Ans. A. Self-calibration: 

  • 1. Self-calibration refers to altering a sensor parameter during manufacture, which can be gain, offset, or both.
  • 2. Self-calibration is the process of adjusting the divergence of the sensor’s output from the target value while the input is at its smallest, or it can be an initial gain adjustment.
  • 3. Calibration is required since their modifications typically vary over time, necessitating the removal and recalibration of the device.
  • 4. If recalibration of the units is difficult once they are in service, the manufacturer over-designs to ensure that the item operates within specification throughout its service life.
  • 5. Smart sensors solve these issues since they have a built-in microprocessor with correction functions stored in their memory.

B. Computation: 

  • 1. Calculation also provides the average, variance, and standard deviation for the collection of measurements.
  • 2. This is simple to accomplish using a smart sensor.
  • 3. Computational capabilities enables for compensation for environmental changes such as temperature as well as correction for offset and gain changes.

C. Communication: 

  • 1. Communication is the process of exchanging or transferring information, which a smart sensor can readily perform.
  • 2. This is quite useful because the sensor can broadcast information about its own condition as well as measurement uncertainty.

D. Multi-sensing (Testing): 

  • 1. Some smart sensors can measure more than one physical or chemical variable at the same time.
  • 2. A single intelligent sensor can measure pressure, temperature, humidity, gas flow, infrared, chemical reaction surface acoustic vapour, and other parameters.

Q4. Discuss the evolution of smart sensor.

Ans. Evolution of smart sensors: 

  • 1. The first generation of devices had minimal, if any, electronics.
  • 2. Devices from the second generation were used in pure analogue systems. They are virtually linked to their related electronics, which are located in a remote location from the sensor.
  • 3. Figure 3 depicts the block diagram of a third generation smart gadget.
Discuss the evolution of smart sensor. Sensor and Transducers
  • 4. Transducers and their related signal conditioning circuits are used as separate devices in third generation electronics.
  • 5. An ADC can be used to convert analogue input signals to digital output signals.
  • 6. A microcomputer was utilized for programming, and ROM was employed for data storage and retrieval. Communication with the host computer was accomplished via an appropriate communication interface capability.
  • 7. The transducer and signal conditioning devices have been merged in a monolithic package in the fourth generation of smart sensing devices.
  • 8. The block diagram of fourth generation device is shown in Fig. 
Discuss the evolution of smart sensor. Sensor and Transducers Aktu Btech
  • 9. Figure shows a block diagram of a fifth generation smart sensor, as well as an integrated sensor analogue to digital conversion (ADC) device.
  • 10. In monolithic form, PROM memory can be integrated with sensing and conversion units. The entire unit’s operation can also be readily carried out.
Discuss the evolution of smart sensor.

Q5. Discuss the use of smart sensors in electric vehicle.

Ans. A. Displacement/LVDT sensors: 

  • 1. LVDT (Linear Variable Differential Transformer) sensors used during battery validation testing to assess pouch and prismatic cell swelling.
  • 2. Because batteries bulge and expand over time, this testing aids in determining the endurance of each cell as well as the proper type and size of battery housing.
  • 3. These sensors must have excellent precision and resolution over a wide temperature range, as well as low drift over time and be suited for usage in harsh fluids and hostile settings.

B. Inertial sensors:

  • 1. Translational and rotational accelerations are measured using inertial sensors.
  • 2. The accelerations and rotations along the three axes can be monitored in six dimensions while driving by integrating many inertial sensors in an inertial measurement unit.
  • 3. As a result, an inertial measurement unit can be employed for a wide range of automobile applications, including future advanced driver assistance system capabilities and autonomous driving.
  • 4. The inertial measurement unit measures up to six dimensions: 
    • i. Yaw 
    • ii. Roll 
    • iii. Pitch rate
    • iv. Lateral 
    • v.Longitudinal 
    • vi. Vertical accelerations.  
  • 5. The inertial measurement unit, which includes an integrated microcontroller, contributes to the functionality of the airbag control unit as well as driver assistance systems like as adaptive cruise control. 

C. Wireless sensor networks: 

  • 1. Wireless sensor networks are omnipresent in the EV industry, from design certification to production and real-time vehicle health monitoring.
  • 2. During the manufacturing and testing of EVs, wireless temperature and voltage sensors on EV batteries and components are used as safety systems.
  • 3. They are used to detect quality faults, assess the crashworthiness of car and battery systems, and safeguard test operators.
  • 4. Wireless vibration, shock, and strain sensors are utilized to characterize and improve vehicle performance, as well as to guide structural analysis.
  • 5. These wireless sensor networks must be simple to set up and provide full-featured, time-synchronized sensor data aggregation and visualization features.

Q6. Discuss the smart sensor application of traffic control, public safety, digital signage, EV charging and WiFi in smart cities. 

Ans. A. Traffic control:

  • 1. Data from optical, radar, or infrared distance sensors can be utilized to count cars and estimate traffic flow on roads.
  • 2. Machine vision is intended to recognise and classify specific shapes in order to analyze optical data acquired by smart cameras.
  • 3. These video analytics can be used to perform a wide range of tasks such as people counting, traffic counting, wrong way driver detection, and more.
  • 4. Radar detectors and infrared distance sensors can be used to fulfill similar applications.
  • 5. Video analytics are extensively used in smart cities to monitor and track real-time traffic patterns.
  • 6. This information can be utilized to improve signal timing or traffic patterns.
  • 7. Data-driven traffic system optimisation can drastically cut the amount of time people spend in their cars, lowering greenhouse gas emissions and wear and tear on public roads.

B. Public and campus safety: 

  • 1. When cameras, microphones, and other security systems are combined with analytics, they become more effective.
  • 2. Public safety applications include video and audio detection, as well as edge-based signal processing, to detect suspicious or illegal activities such as gunshots, glass-breaks, suspicious parcels, wrong-way cars, and so on.
  • 3. Security events are instantly notified to the designated security centre via smart city communication networks.

C. Digital signage: 

  • 1. Digital signage is simple to install in smart cities.
  • 2. These signs can be used to aid in navigation or to convey emergency information such as weather warnings or amber alerts.
  • 3. Furthermore, adverts shown on digital signs have the potential to create additional money for smart cities.
  • 4. Digital signage improves community engagement, public safety, and economic development.

D. Electric vehicle charging: 

  • 1. Smart city hubs enable the use of electricity from a street light pole to power electric vehicle chargers.
  • 2. That electricity can be metered and billed to end customers.
  • 3. Optical sensors detect licence plate information using artificial intelligence; this information, along with power consumption statistics, can be communicated across the smart city communication network to bill the end user.

E. Public Wi-Fi access:

  • 1. Internet infrastructure is critical for communities to attract new business and inhabitants.
  • 2. Public Wi-Fi access points can be installed alongside or within LED streetlights.
  • 3. By employing existing streetlight infrastructure, this technique provides low costs and widespread coverage.
  • 4. A widely distributed Wi-Fi network enables smart city applications with higher communication requirements, such as video streaming for security.
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