Learn more about Organisation Behaviour in BCA solved question paper. Learn more about how people behave in organisations and obtain insightful knowledge for efficient leadership and teamwork.
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Section A: Organisation Behaviour Very Short Question Answers
Q1. Define the term organisational behaviour with respect to cultural diversity.
Ans. Characteristics of Organisational Culture : Every organisation is different. Every organisation has its own background, myths, and visions. In nature, cultures are comparatively stable. Cultures cannot change quickly, so change must always be gradual and steady. Historically, the majority of corporate cultures have been implicit rather than overt. The fact that most cultures are constantly viewed as a symbolic reflection of underlying beliefs and values is one of their most defining traits.
An organisation’s culture becomes perpetuated by its tendency to attract and retain people who fit its norms, values and beliefs.
- i. Culture is the feature which distinguishes any organisation from other organisations.
- ii. Strong culture makes the stable organisations.
- iii. Culture reflects what top management wants from its employees.
- iv. Every culture has subcultures.
Q2. Briefly define the term perception, attitude, values and motivation.
Ans. Perception : The act of perception is cognitive. Selecting, arranging, and assigning meaning to the events taking place in the environment is the process of perception. In actuality, our perspective is what informs what we know about the world around us.
Attitude : As a tendency, set, or state of preparedness to react to a social object, attitude is what we refer to.
As stated by Luthans, “An attitude can be defined as a persistent tendency to feel and behave in a particular way towards some object.”
Motivation : The word “motive” is where the word “motivation” comes from. A person’s needs, wants, urges, or impulses are considered to constitute their motivation. Motivation is a crucial element that inspires people to provide their best effort and aids in achieving organisational goals. Employee productivity can be boosted when there is a high positive motivation present, but it can be decreased when there is a strong negative drive.
Values: Values in organisational behaviour as the collective conceptions of what is considered good, desirable and proper or bad, undesirable and improper in a culture. Some common business values and fairness innovations and community involvement.
Q3. Briefly examine the determinants of personality.
Ans. There are four major factors which shape the personality of an individual which are given below:
- 1. Biological Factors : Biological factors can be discussed into the following three heads :
- a. Physical Features : Physical characteristics play a significant role in determining personality. It has been demonstrated that a person’s personality is significantly influenced by his outward appearance. Physical characteristics of a person include their height, weight, skin tone, facial features, etc. A person’s ability to influence people will be influenced by their physical appearance, which is a benefit for the work.
- b. Heredity : Heredity is the process through which traits are passed down from one generation to the next via genes inserted into each parent’s chromosomes. One’s personality is significantly influenced by one’s heredity. The significance of genetics, however, varies from one personality attribute to another; for example, inheritance typically plays a larger role in shaping a person’s temperament than his or her values and beliefs.
- c. Brain : Brain is another biological factor that influences the personality. However, no conclusive proof is available so far about the nature of relationship between the brain and personality.
- 2. Family and Social Factors : Family and social influences play a significant role in determining an individual’s personality. The social standing of the family affects how each person views themselves, their finances, their jobs, other people, etc. A person’s personality is shaped by their family and their social environment through the socialisation and identification processes. The socialisation process begins with contact with the mother, and later it is influenced by other family members and social circles. On the other hand, the identification process takes place when a person seeks to identify with a family member they believe to be their ideal.
- 3. Situational Factors : A person’s personality might shift depending on the circumstances. Language, ability, and knowledge are learned and constitute significant behavioural changes. Children must learn new behaviours on their own through interaction with their environment because learned changes in behaviour are not transmitted to them.
- 4. Other Factors : Temperament, interest, reasons, culture, and character are other aspects that affect an individual’s personality. Culture is a collection of shared values, coping mechanisms, and ways of thinking about the world that are passed down from one generation to the next. Each culture treats and expects its members to act in ways that are appropriate to the group, according to Mussen.
Q4. Enumerate the term conflict resolution.
Ans. Conflict can be characterised as a method of settling disagreements and conflict in which a third party who is objective on all relevant points assists the parties in reaching a compromise. The three most popular methods of resolving disputes are negotiation, mediation, and arbitration. All three of these methods emphasise settling disputes amicably and without going to court.
Q5. Explain the term grievances.
Ans. When individuals interact, whether in an organisational setting or another setting, grievances often arise. Employees may have grievances against management or the employer in the organisational setting. The employer may also have complaints against the employees. Dissatisfaction over a few employment-related concerns is referred to as grievance. In general, expressing this satisfaction orally is known as complaining, while expressing it in writing is known as grieving. This is the latter form of expression of dissatisfaction which requires redressal. For example, Dale Yoder has defined grievance as a “written complaint iedoy an employee and claiming unfair treatment” National Commission on Labour (India) has taken the view: “Complaints affecting one or more individual workers in respect of wage payments, overtime, leave, transfer, promotion, seniority, wok assignment and other discharges constitute grievances.”
Section B: Organisation Behaviour Short Question Answers
Q6. Enumerate traits of effective leaders.
Ans. Traits of an Effective Leader : Some of the important qualities or traits of an effective leader are as follows :
- 1. Intelligence : Leaders generally have higher level of intelligence than the average people. Intelligence is generally expressed in terms of mental ability to think scientifically and analyse accurately the problems before a person.
- 2. Maturity : A leader should possess a high level of emotional stability and cool temperament. He needs a high degree of tolerance. He must have an open mind to absorb new ideas as and when necessary.
- 3. Vision and Foresight : A leader should be able to visualise events well in advance. He should have a high degree of imagination, breadth and determination.
- 4. Open Mindedness : A leader should be ready to absorb and adopt new ideas as may be demanded by situation. He should be prepared to accommodate others view point and other his decision, if required.
- 5. Self Confidence : A good leader should possess the conceptual clarity about the things he is going to do. He should have confidence in himself whenever he initiates any course of action. Self confidence is essential to motivate the followers and boost up their morals.
- 6. Acceptance of Responsibility : A reliable leader is prepared to shoulder the responsibility of the consequence of any steps be contemplates or tasks. He is aware of the duties and obligations associated with the position he holds.
- 7. Human Relation Attitude : A successful leader possess the human relation attitude. He always tries to develop social understanding with other people.
- 8. Physical Features : Physical features and level of maturity determine the personality of an individual which is an important factor in determining success of leadership.
Define the term grievances. Explain the process of grievances handling.
Ans. An employee’s unhappiness with the company’s work policies and circumstances as a result of a claimed legal violation is referred to as a grievance. They may or may not be warranted, but they typically show the discrepancy between the employee’s expectations and what the organisation delivers.
Process of Grievance Handling
A grievance is any unhappiness or sense of injustice related to one’s employment condition that is brought to management’s attention. A complaint, broadly speaking, is any form of unhappiness that negatively impacts the production and relationships inside a company.
Briefly stated, a grievance is a state of unresolved dissatisfactions that are connected to a work position and may be vocal, unspoken, written, or unreasonable.
Grievance Procedure : In many cases, even the proactive approach of management for removing the causes of grievances may leave some scope for the emergence of grievances. For handling such grievance handling machinery, known as grievance procedure, must be provided.
Grievance procedure is a device through which grievance is settled, generally to the satisfaction of employees/trade union and management. A grievance procedure is required because of the following reasons :
- 1. A grievance procedure offers a mechanism for complaints to be resolved to the satisfaction of management and employees. It may be important to understand that unresolved complaints can lead to a lot of explosive situations if they are not handled properly.
- 2. Grievance procedures are necessary because many employee complaints even those that are not directly related to the employer may not be resolved by that party. The supervisors might not have had the proper orientation and training, or they might not have the necessary power to resolve complaints. Additionally, personality issues and other factors could be to blame.
- 3. The existence of grievance procedure puts restrain on the arbitrary actions of management in settling grievances. Further, employees may have more faith in mutually agreed grievance procedure.
- 4. Grievance procedure serves as an outlet for employee’s gripes discontentment and frustration. Keith Davis has observed :”The grievance procedure acts like a pressure valve on a steam boiler. The employees are entitled to legislative, executive and judicial production and they get this protection from the grievance redress procedure.”
Q7. What is intrapersonal relationship?
Ans. An intense bond between people who work together in the same organisation is referred to as an intrapersonal relationship. For them to perform at their highest level, coworkers should have a special bond. For a strong interpersonal relationship and eventually a positive work environment, people need to be honest with one other.
Define the term motivation. Explain the importance of motivation in employee satisfaction.
Ans. The word “motive” is where the word “motivation” comes from. A person’s needs, wants, urges, or impulses are considered to constitute their motivation. Motivation is a crucial element that inspires people to provide their best effort and aids in achieving organisational goals. Employee productivity can be boosted when there is a high positive motivation present, but it can be decreased when there is a strong negative drive.
The management of any organisation aims at the best possible or optimum utilisation of the available resources to achieve organisational objectives. However, this can be achieved only when the employees cooperate in this task. Efforts should be made to motivate the employees for contributing their maximum. The employees thus motivated, becomes an asset to the organisation. The importance of motivation has been summed up in the following points :
- 1. High Performance : Motivated workers give their all to accomplishing organisational objectives, both mentally and physically. Productivity will increase as jobs are completed more effectively. If productivity is subsequently increased, the cost of production may likewise decline. Thus, motivation functions as a catalyst for enhancing employee performance and, as a result, the company.
- 2. Low Employee Turnover and Absenteeism : Employees will only leave a company or job if they are unhappy with it, regardless of whether they receive an offer from another company. Employee unhappiness also leads to more absences. The cost of training new hires is high for the company. Employees won’t quit their employment, on the other hand, if they are happy in their positions and feel motivated by both monetary and non-monetary rewards. Absenteeism rates will also decline.
- 3. Better Organisational Image : Businesses with better financial and non-financial benefits for their employees are seen favourably by these employees. Not only do these firms retain their current workforce, but they also have success luring in more skilled and experienced candidates. Positive word-of-mouth about the organization’s personnel practises helps to improve the organization’s reputation as a whole.
- 4. Better Industrial Relations : Employee job satisfaction is produced through a well-designed motivation plan that is implemented in a methodical manner. Better working conditions and a variety of additional monetary and non-monetary benefits are offered to employees in such an organisation. This fosters a culture of confidence and trust, which in turn assures friendly interactions and positive workplace relationships.
- 5. Acceptability to Change : To ensure that they can survive and compete in the altered environment, business enterprises must adapt and adjust their systems and practises in response to the rapidly changing social, industrial, and technical environment. Most firms encounter resolute employee resistance whenever they introduce change. However, workers in an organisation with a strong motivating structure will consider the benefits of changes and work with management to implement them.
Q8. Explain the theory behind free-rein leadership style?
Ans. Laissez-Faire or Free Rein Leader : A leader with complete autonomy does not guide the group; instead, they give it free rein. He is represented by the board chairman, who delegated control of the majority of the job to his staff. The free reign management abstains from using force. He heavily relies on the group to set its own objectives and solve its own issues. Members of the group put in their own effort and drive. The manager acts as a control figure with outsiders to provide his group the knowledge and resources it requires to achieve its objectives.
The possible advantages of free rein style of leadership are as under:
- a. It creates an environment of freedom, individually as well as team spirit.
- b. With a free and informal work environment, it is highly conducive to creative work.
- c. It is very suitable where people are highly motivated and achievement oriented.
Section C: Organisation Behaviour Detailed Question Answers
Q9. What is hygiene factor of Herzberg’s motivation theory?
Ans. A motivational theory known as the motivation hygiene idea was first presented by Frederick Irving Herzberg in the late 1950s. Because it is based on two factors—work satisfaction and job dissatisfaction it is often referred to as the two-factor motivation hypothesis. Herzberg made the decision to interview as many employees who were working at higher levels in their individual firms as possible in order to determine the causes causing job satisfaction and job discontent. As a result, he spoke with 200 accountants and engineers, asking them to recollect specific instances when they felt happy or unhappy at work and to explain why. Job happiness and job dissatisfaction are not mutually exclusive because the underlying causes of both circumstances were very different. Thus absence of job satisfaction means no job satisfaction and not job dissatisfaction. Herzberg classified the factors responsible for either job satisfaction or job dissatisfaction into following categories :
- (a) Hygiene Factors: These factors are those motivating factors whose presence motivates the employees at the workplace but for a limited period only. However, their absence can result in job dissatisfaction for the employees. Adequate number of hygiene factors at the workplace help in comforting the employees. Since, these factors focus on avoiding dissatisfaction, they are also termed as maintenance factors or dissatisfiers. These factors play a very important role in creating a healthy work environment, which ultimately fulfils the physiological needs of the employees. Some of the hygiene factors are as follows :
- (i) Pay: The salary structure of the employees should be set according to the market value. Salary paid to the employees working at same position even in different organisations should remain same. The pay should be fair, reasonable and unbiased.
- (ii) Company Policies and Administrative Policies: The policies set by the company should be flexible, unbiased and transparent in nature. Rigidity in working hours, leaves, breaks and dress-code can make the working environment uncomfortable for the employees.
- (iii) Fringe Benefits: Fringe benefits in the form of medical claims, benefit plans for family, assistance programmes for employees, etc., motivate the employees to a great extent.
- (iv) Physical Working Conditions: The working environment has a big impact on how well employees perform because it makes them feel good and inspires them to work hard. Unhealthy surroundings, risky, ineffective tools and equipment increase the possibility of accidents while also causing employee unhappiness.
- (v) Status: The employees should be given proper respect in the organisation. They should have a well known status within the organisation, which must be retained by the firm.
- (vi) Interpersonal Relations: The relationship between the employee and his colleagues, his superiors and juniors should be healthy and understandable. Arousal of any dispute or any embarrassing situation can adversely affect their relationships.
- (vii) Job Security: Job security in the form of insurance, pension, retirement fund, etc, given by the organisation provides maximum job satisfaction to the employees and motivates them to stay with the organisation for a long duration.
- (b) Motivational Factors: According to Herzbergb, unlike hygiene factors, motivational factors positively satisfy the human beings for a much longer term. That is why, hygiene factors are considered as less motivating as compared to motivational factors. These factors are also known as satisfiers and are inherent by nature. These factors are considered as intrinsic rewards that motivate employees to perform more effectively. According to motivational factors, basic physical needs are just an additional benefit to the employees. Following are some of the motivational factors :
- (i) Recognition: Manager should motivate the employees by praising and appreciating them for their hard work and good performance.
- (ii) Sense of Achievement: While performing any job, employees must develop a sense of achievement. They must realise that their hard work will be rewarded at the end of the day. For this, managers can use some sort of rewards to motivate the employees.
- (iii) Growth and Promotional Opportunities: Another way by which an organisation can motivate its employees is by providing them with numerous opportunities for their advancement that can help them in their career growth.
- (iv) Responsibility: Managers should try to make their subordinates accountable by minimising their interference and excessive control over their job. Employees should be made solely responsible for their performance and must be provided with job ownership.
- (v) Meaningfulness of the Work: The more meaningful and challenging task is given to the employees, more interesting and motivating that task becomes for them.
Q10. How can analyse different reward system as a part of motivation of employees?
Ans. Reward systems in organisations are used for a variety of reasons. It is generally agreed that reward systems influence the following :
- (a) Job effort and performance following expectancy theory, employees effort and performance would be expected to increase when they felt that rewards were contingent upon good performance. Hence, reward systems serve a very basic motivational function.
- (b) Attendence and retention. Reward systems have also been shown to influence and employee’s decision to come employee’s to work or to remain with the organisation. This was discussed in the previous chapter.
- (c) Employee commitment to the organisation. It has been found that reward systems in no small way influence employee commitment to the organisation, primarily through the exchange process. That is, employees develop ties with organisations when they perceive that the organisations is interested in their welfare and willing to protect their interests. To the extent that employee needs and goals are met by the company, we would expect commitment to increase. Occupational and organisational choice. Finally, the selection of an occupation by an individual, as well as the decision to join a particular organisation within that occupation, are influenced by the rewards that are thought to be available in the occupation or organisation. To prove this, simply look at the classified section of your local newspaper and notice how many jobs highlight beginning salaries.
Organisational reward schemes have significant effects on employee happiness and organisational effectiveness. Unfortunately, cases where reward systems have been skewed to penalise excellent performance or stifle inventiveness are readily available. Consider the case of the Greyhound bus driver who violated a company policy prohibiting the use of ACB radio on his bus and received a 10-day suspension without pay. Using the radio, the bus driver had called the police to report that his bus, which had 32 passengers inside, was being taken over by an armed man. The bus driver was suspended for violating company policies while the hooker was taken into custody by the police. Such occurrences hardly inspire workers to concentrate their efforts on accountable performance.
Q11. The Human motivation factors of physiological needs are a concept that explains the human requirements of conscious mind’. Comment.
Ans. The Human motivation factors of physiological needs are a concept that explains the human requirements of conscious mind. It is important to understand the physiological theory of Abraham Maslow:
Maslow’s hierarchy needs theory is undoubtedly the simplest explanation of human behaviour. His theory emphasizes on two fundamental premises :
1. Human behaviour can be explained on the basis of the needs that dominate the individual at that moment. Only the needs which are not yet satisfied can influence behaviour. In other words, a satisfied need does not lead to any motivation in an individual.
2. Human needs are arranged in a hierarchy of importance. Once one need is satisfied, a higher need emerges and demands satisfaction thereby determining behaviour till its fulfilment after which another need may emerge.
He placed them in a framework called as hierarchy of needs because of the different levels of importance attached to each of them.
According to Maslow, if all of a person’s needs are unsatisfied at a particular time, satisfaction of the most predominant needs will take precedence. First, the lower order needs will be satisfied, then only the person would move towards the satisfaction of higher order needs. The five levels of needs, as per Maslow, are explained hereunder:
- 1. Physiological Needs : Physiological needs comprise of the most basic or primary needs of the human body such as food, water, shelter and sex. When all needs are unsatisfied, physical needs will dominate. In such a case, no other need would serve as a basic for motivation.
- 2. Safety Needs : The next higher level, or safety needs, take precedence once the physiological demands have been met. They consist of defence against physical danger, ill health, financial loss, and avoiding the unexpected and sick. From an organisational standpoint, safety requirements take the form of increased financial support, company-paid insurance, job security, etc.
- 3. Social Needs : The social nature of people and the urge for companionship are tied to these requirements. Being among friends, family, or other formal and informal groups can satisfy social needs. This level of needs’ unfulfillment may have an impact on a person’s mental health.
- 4. Esteem Needs : Fourth in the ned hierarchy is ego or self-esteem needs which are concerned with self respect, self-confidence, appreciation and recognition, applause, power and control. These needs give the individual a sense of self-worth and ego satisfaction.
- 5. Self-actualization Needs : This means the realization of the complete potentialities of talent and capabilities. It may be defined as the desire to become more and more of what one is, to become everything one is capable of. It is a desire of personal achievement which provides psychological satisfaction.
Q12. Discuss ‘conflict can be defined as a mental struggle’.
Ans. A mental struggle brought on by incompatible or competing desires, drives, and demands from the outside or the within is known as conflict. Conflict exists wherever there are people. They are frequently associated negatively. This, however, is untrue since healthy relationships require disagreement. Everything depends on the strategy we employ to settle the dispute.
Classification of Conflict
Types of Conflict Situations : Conflict can have both positive and negative connotations, so it needs to be handled carefully if it’s to be used for good. Managers spend 20% of their time handling conflict situations, according to Thomas and Schmidt. In order to deal with the common traits of disputes, they just understand the type of conflict and employ some standardised approaches.
- 1. Conflict within the Individual : This type of conflict is usually value related, where the role played by the individual does not match with the values and beliefs held by that individual.
- 2. Interpersonal Conflict : The most prevalent kind of conflict, according to some, is when two people disagree. This could be a conflict between two managers who are vying for scarce manpower and capital resources. When finite resources cannot be shared and must be acquired, the conflict takes on a more acute form.
The dispute over the organization’s aims and objectives can also lead to interpersonal conflict. Members of the governing board may disagree in such a circumstance. Conflict may also occur as a result of the nature of the objectives or goals and the methods used to achieve them.
These conflicts are due to personality clothes among members holding different positions in an organisation. The reason is due to various different characteristics. attitudes and views of different people.
- 3. Conflict between Individual and Group : All members are expected to adhere to a set of behavioural norms and operational standards. A person may join a group to fulfil a social need, but he or she may object to the organisation’s practises. For instance, in some restaurants, tips are split among all the waiters and waitresses. However, a specific waitress can feel as though she is deserving of more, which produces mental conflict and changes in behaviour. This conflict could arise between a leader and followers or between a manager and a group of subordinates. Because the struggle between the armed forces is treated so seriously, the army is compelled to follow orders from their commander, even if they are unjust and go against what other people believe.
- 4. Inter-organisational Conflict : These arises conflict between organisations, which are in some way or the other dependent upon each other. This conflict may be between buyer organisations and the supplier organisations about quantity, quality and delivery timings of raw materials and other policy issues etc. these conflicts are needed to be resolved and managed properly at their initial stages so as to benefit both typès of organisations.
- 5. Inter-groups Conflict : Any organization is said to be a whole network of group teams, sections and departments. These conflicts are mostly due to the organisational structure.
Q13. Define the term personality and basic determinants of personality. Discuss any one theories of personality from the following.
Ans. Personality with its Determinants:
“Personality is the dynamic organisation within the individual of these psychological systems that determine his unique adjustment to his environment.”
Another approach to studying personality is through trait theory. A personality trait is a persistent quality about a person that shows itself consistently in a range of circumstances. A trait distinguishes one person from another in a way that is comparatively constant or permanent. An attribute of a person is separated from his or her action and acts as a helpful “unit of analysis” to comprehend personality.
(i) Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytic theory
Ans. Psychoanalytic Theory : Freud, the father of psychoanalytic theory. proposed that every individual’s personality is the product of a struggle among three interacting forces the id, the ego and the superego.
- a. ID : Strong inborn desires and drives like sex and aggressiveness come from the id. The id acts to avoid tension and seeks immediate pleasure, which is known as the pleasure principle. It is not entirely able to deal with objective reality because it tends to act at a very subjective and unconscious level. Many of its motivations are also incompatible with organised society’s values.
- b. EGO : The id’s limitations when interacting with the outside world give rise to the ego. The ego grows an individual’s capacity for realistic thought and ability to interact with his surroundings via learning and experience. It functions according to a concept known as the reality principle, which has the power to put off the release of stress until it can be used to deal with the outside world in a useful way.
- c. Superego : The superego serves as an ethical restraint on activity and stands in for societal and individual norms. It’s easiest to think of it as the conscience. The superego gives the ego standards by which to judge what is right or wrong. A person is unaware of how their superego functions, and their conscience is formed as a result of assimilating cultural values and social standards.
(ii) Erikson’s theory.
Ans. Neo-Freudian Erik Erikson made significant contributions to the study of life-span development. The psychodynamic frame of view was related to Erikson’s theories. Erikson built his thesis from Freud’s idea of the ego. He classified a person’s lifelong growth into eight phases known as psychosocial stages. Each stage, in his view, represented a conflict that had to be addressed in order for the individual to advance to the next. The issue could never be fully resolved because the eight stages are only loosely tied to one another. Various stages are as follows :
- (a) Infancy/Trust versus Mistrust (Birth to 1 Year): A youngster learns about trust and mistrust during the first year of life. As a result of receiving unwavering love, the newborn learns to trust other people. When there is a lack of affection and concern, suspicion grows. The child’s personality is impacted by the events of this stage throughout his life.
- (b) Early Childhood/Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt (1 to 3 Years): In his or her second and third years of life, a youngster begins to look for independence. The child is now capable of effectively managing several aspects of life. If given the opportunity, he gains a sense of independence. It is expected that he will feel uncertain and humiliated if the elders keep preventing him from taking charge.
- (c) Play Age/Initiative versus Guilt (3 to 6 Years): Children between the ages of four and five have a propensity to explore their abilities. A feeling of innovation will grow in homes where kids are encouraged to conduct experiments and meet goals appropriate for their age. The child will feel regret and lose confidence in himself if experimentation and creative expression are forbidden.
- (d) School Age/Industry versus Inferiority (6 to 12 Years): The child discovers various new skills in between the age of six to twelve years and becomes socially active. If the child gets an opportunity to experience actual growth at par with his capacity, he develops a sense of enterprise; otherwise he develops an inferiority complex.
- (e) Adolescence/Identity versus Role Diffusion (12 to 20 Years): The biggest issue with the teenage is gaining an identity. People want to know who they are. Along with a number of biological changes happening in this stage, the teenager is also striving to gain an identity separate from his parents. Development of independence, initiativeness and enterprise in the previous stages also supports the teenager in overcoming this issue and helps in entering into adulthood.
- (f) Early Adulthood/Intimacy versus Isolation (20 to 40 Years): In his twenties, as a young adult, the most vital issue faced by a person is intimacy versus isolation. He is expected to develop strong bonds of friendship and love. As a part of the psychological conflict, the person needs to develop intimate ties with others otherwise he will become isolated.
- (e) Adulthood/Generativity versus Stagnation (40 to 65 Years): In this stage, the adult must choose between being generative and being self-absorbed. Self-centered by nature, self-absorbed people are constantly worried about maintaining and advancing their careers. They have no concern for the welfare of the next generation, their society, or the area in which they dwell. On the other hand, creative individuals prioritise the world over themselves. They place more focus on societal advancement and workplace productivity. They benefit the organisation because they are imaginative and creative.
- (h) Mature Adulthood/Ego Integrity versus Despair (Old Age): At this stage, the individual becomes mature. He has attained a sense of intelligence and objectivity and c¡n be an excellent leader for the upcoming generations.