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Rural Development : Administration and Planning: Last year Question Paper Questions with Answer

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Section A: Short Question In Rural Development : Administration and Planning

a. What are the basic importance of rural development for creation of sustainable livelihoods in India ?


  • 1. Rural development is critical for the construction of long-term livelihoods.
  • 2. It is necessary for the abolition of poverty.
  • 3. There is significant value in synchronising rural development activities that contribute to long-term livelihoods.
  • 4. A healthy and vibrant agricultural sector provides a critical basis for rural development, providing strong links with other economic sectors.
  • 5. Rural livelihoods are improved by effective rural people engagement in the management of their own social, economic, and environmental goals.

b. What are the policies and programs for rural development ?  

Ans. Following are some important government policies and programmes in agriculture :

  • 1. Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY). 
  • 2. Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana (PMKSY).
  • 3. Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY).  
  • 4. Rainfed Area Development Programme (RADP). 
  • 5. National Watershed Development Project for Rainfed Areas (NWDPRA). 
  • 6. National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA). 

c. What are the main objectives of Sriniketan experiment ?  

Ans. The objectives of the mission were: 

  • 1. To win the friendship and affection of villagers and cultivators. 
  • 2. To take the problem of the village and the field to the class room for study. 
  • 3. To put the students in the way of acquiring practical experience in agriculture and allied industries. 
  • 4. To give the students elementary instruction in the science connected with their practical work.
  • 5. To encourage in the staff and students a spirit of sincere service for the people of the surrounding villages. 
  • 6. To train the students to a due sense of their own intrinsic worth. 

d. Why is Sriniketan important in rural development ?  

Ans. Significance of Sriniketan programme is as follows : 

  • 1. A crucial feature of the experiment was the cooperative movement.
  • 2. In 1928, another concept, Dharmagola, embodying the cooperative philosophy, was introduced for the benefit of the locals.
  • 3. The Mahila Samities (Women’s Association) played an important role in the community’s economic and social well-being.

e. What is the bureaucracy structure ? 

Ans. A bureaucratic structure is intended to manage large-scale, methodical coordination among many people operating at many levels to achieve a common goal.

f. What is administrative structure in government ?

Ans. A hierarchical arrangement of lines of power is typical of an administrative structure. It dictates how jobs, power, and responsibilities are assigned, as well as how work flows through government levels.

g. What is the concept of self-help groups ? 

Ans. SHGs are informal associations of people who get together to identify solutions to improve their living situations.

h. What is the nutritional status ? 

Ans. Nutritional status is a measure of an individual’s health as it is influenced mostly by food intake and nutrient use.

i. What is the need and importance of rural industrialization?  

Ans. The significance of rural industrialization are as follow: 

  • 1. They can reduce urban migration and thereby alleviate urbanization difficulties.
  • 2. They contribute to environmental improvement by lowering the concentration of industrial units in major cities.
  • 3. They can boost rural income and provide farmers with non-farm employment.

j. How can technology help rural India ? 

Ans. Many aspects of life have become easier for persons living in rural and distant places as a result of technological advancements. Some of the solutions that improve daily living include applications that facilitate quick communication and connectivity, as well as equipment and technologies that lessen reliance on city or urban-based resources.

Section B : Long Questions Rural Development : Administration and Planning

a. What are the main components of rural development ? Describe Public health and Sanitation and Women empowerment component.


  • 1. ‘Rural’ development entails the enhancement of villages.
  • 2. The social, economic, and general growth of a rural area is dependent on a variety of elements such as agriculture, improved planning, job creation, and so on.
  • 3. In order to improve the villages, more educational facilities should be supplied, communication networks should be created, and a health complex should be established to provide treatment to the inhabitants.
  • 4. Following are some of the chief components of rural development : 
    • i. Education 
    • ii. Public health and Sanitation 
    • iii. Women empowerment 
    • iv. Infrastructure development (electricity, irrigation, etc.) 
    • v. Facilities for agriculture extension and research 
    • vi. Availability of credit
    • vii. Employment opportunities

A. Public health and Sanitation in rural development :  

  • 1. Sanitation includes safe drinking water, fluid and solid waste management, natural cleanliness, and personal cleanliness.
  • 2. Failure to ensure any of these can have serious consequences for the individual’s well-being.
  • 3. Clean drinking water and proper sanitation are critical to people’s general well-being.
  • 4. Water contamination and inadequate sanitation are responsible for 70-80% of illnesses.

B. Women empowerment in rural development : 

  • 1. Women occupy critical roles in the rural economy as farmers, wage earners, and business owners.
  • 2. They are also responsible for the well-being of their family members, including food preparation and care for youngsters and the elderly.
  • 3. Yet, due to gender-based discrimination and societal norms, women in rural areas confront barriers to economic participation.
  • 4. Empowering rural women through decent labour and productive employment contributes not only to inclusive and sustainable economic growth, but also improves the effectiveness of poverty reduction and food security measures.
  • 5. Empowerment can empower women to engage in the economic, political, and social growth of rural areas as equal citizens.

b. What are the main features of Gurgaon experiment ? Describe it. 


  • 1. Rural upliftment movement on a mass scale was first started by Mr. F. L. Brayne in 1920. 
  • 2. He was prompted by the backwardness, poverty and misery of the people. 
  • 3. After seven years of study he developed a scheme called “The Gurgaon scheme” with the following objectives :  
    • i. To increase crop production,  
    • ii. To control extra expenditure, 
    • iii. To improve the health, 
    • iv. To develop the feeling of women-education, and 
    • v. Home development work. 
  • 4. He used the entire district as his operating area and bombarded it with every manner of propaganda and publicity.
  • 5. As part of his initiative, village guides were assigned to each hamlet and served as a conduit for residents to receive information.
  • 6. The initiative introduced improved seeds, equipment, and agricultural methods, among other things.
  • 7. The activities introduced by Brayne were :
    • i. A school of rural economy to train the village guides in 1925. 
    • ii. A domestic school of economy to train groups of women under women and children welfare work in 1926. 
    • iii. Health association, which ran five health centres in the district. 
    • iv. A women’s Institute at Gurgaon to manage the ladies’ garden in Gurgaon. 

c. How many Panchayati Raj institutions are there in India ? What is Panchayati Raj institutions explain its functions ? 


  • 1. Panchayati Raj (Council of five officials) is a system of village local self-government in rural India.
  • 2. It consists of Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs), which enable localities to exercise self-government.
  • 3. PRIs are in charge of economic development, social justice, and the implementation of Central and State Government schemes.
  • 4. Part IX of the Indian Constitution is the section pertaining to Panchayats.
  • 5. It stipulates that in states or Union Territories with more than two million inhabitants there are three levels of PRIs:  
    • i. The Gram Panchayats at village level: A Gram, which means a hamlet or a cluster of settlements, is divided into at least five constituencies based on the number of voters in the Gram. Each of these constituencies elects one member. The Gram Panchayat is the body of these elected members.
    • ii. The Panchayat Samiti at block level: Panchayat samiti is a rural local government (panchayat) body at the intermediate tehsil (taluka/mandal) level in India. 
    • iii. The Zila Parishad at district level: The Zila Panchayat, also known as the District Council, Mandal Parishad, or District Panchayat, is the third tier of the Panchayati Raj system, and it operates at the district level in all states. A Zila Parishad is a democratically elected body.  

d. What are the elements of human resource development in rural sectors ? Explain enhance cultural quality and moral quality.  

Ans. 1. Lippitt has developed a model which consists of the elements of a HRD system Fig. They are : 

What are the elements of human resource development in rural sectors ?
  • i. The work itself which generates a higher degree of responsibility for the workforce. 
  • ii. The individual who grows personally and professionally. 
  • iii. The work output of improved quality resulting from increased responsibilities. 
  • iv. Organizational functions and structures built in an open system (concern for both individual and organizational development). 

2. Thus, the components or elements of HRDs are the individual growth, the organizational development and the work output. 

e. What is rural entrepreneurship discuss the problems and prospects of rural entrepreneurship in India ? 

Ans. Rural entrepreneurship :

  • 1. Entrepreneurship emerging in rural areas is called rural entrepreneurship. 
  • 2. Establishing industries in rural areas refers to rural entrepreneurship. 
  • 3. Rural entrepreneurship is synonymous of rural industrialization.  

Problems: Following are some of the major problems faced by rural entrepreneurs : 

A. Financial Problems : 

1. Paucity of Funds :  

  • i. One of the most serious issues is a lack of capital available to rural enterprises.
  • ii. Due to a lack of concrete security and credit in the market, most rural entrepreneurs are unable to obtain external finances.
  • iii. The loan application process takes an inordinate amount of time.

2. Lack of Infrastructural Facilities :

  • i. Despite government attempts, the expansion of rural entrepreneurs is not very healthy due to a lack of suitable and adequate infrastructure amenities.

3. Risk Element : 

  • i. Rural entrepreneurs have less risk bearing capacity due to lack of financial resources and external support. 

B. Marketing Problems : 

1. Competition: The major issues that rural enterprises face are standardisation and competition from large scale units.

2. Advertisement : 

  • i. Print media’s application in rural areas is constrained by the low literacy rate of the people.
  • ii. Communication is made more challenging by the usually limited nature, cultural lag, and cultural obstacles.

3. Middlemen : 

  • i. Middlemen exploit rural entrepreneurs. 
  • ii. The rural entrepreneurs are heavily dependent on middlemen for marketing of their products who pocket large amount of profit. 

C. Management Problems : 

1. Lack of Technical Knowledge : 

  • i. Lack of technical knowledge is a serious challenge for rural business owners.
  • ii. The lack of extensive services and training facilities hinders the growth of rural entrepreneurship.

2. Legal formalities :  

  • i. Due to illiteracy and ignorance, rural entrepreneurs find it incredibly difficult to comply with the various legal requirements to get licences.

3. Procurement of Raw Materials : 

  • i. Finding raw materials for rural business owners is a difficult undertaking.
  • ii. They can receive subpar raw materials and run into storage and warehousing issues.

4. Poor Quality of Products :  

  • i. A significant barrier to the development of rural entrepreneurship is the poor quality of items produced as a result of a lack of access to standard tools and equipment and low-quality raw materials.

D. Human Resources Problems :  

1. Low Skill Level of Workers : 

  • i. The majority of business owners in rural areas struggle to locate employees with high levels of skill.
  • ii High turnover rates are another issue.
  • iii. On-the-job training needs to be offered to workers from rural areas.
  • iv. Because they are typically ignorant and need to be taught in the local language, which they can easily understand, their training is typically a severe difficulty for the entrepreneur.

2. Negative Attitude :

  • i. Continuous motivation is needed in case of rural employee which is sometime difficult for an entrepreneur. 

Prospects of rural :

  • 1. Small and medium-sized businesses are capable of operating in rural areas, and these industries serve as the backbone of the economy by creating jobs and income for the underprivileged and unemployed, and they account for more than 52% of the GDP.
  • 2. The small and medium business sector is expanding quickly. Repair shops, service centres, PCOs, internet cafes, agricultural tool and tractor rentals, computer and other skill training centres, and so on, have a lot of potential in a group of villages.
  • 3. Other potential markets for rural entrepreneurs include entertainment, cable TV, rural tourism, etc.
  • 4. A number of development initiatives are carried out by Panchayati Raj Institutions, who hire contractors to perform civil and mechanical work. This company can be started by rural kids.
  • 5. New opportunities for trading activity in rural areas have emerged as a result of altered consumption patterns.
  • 6. Agriculture-related products, such as fertilisers, seeds, herbicides, and insecticides, are also extensively used in rural areas.

Section 3 : Rural Development Programs

a. What are the rural development programs introduced by government ? Explain MGNREGA and PMGSY.

Ans. Following are the rural development programs introduced by government :

1. Programmes in the agricultural sector :

  • 1. In rural areas, agriculture continues to be the main source of revenue and employment.
  • 2. It goes without saying that agricultural planning is essential to rural development plans.
  • 3. Improving conditions for individuals who depend on the agriculture sector can be facilitated by the sector’s balanced expansion.
  • 4. As a result, the government has introduced new regulations and programmes that will help all farmers.

Following are some important government policies and programmes in agriculture :

  • 1. Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY)  
  • 2. Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana (PMKSY) 
  • 3. Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY)  
  • 4. Rainfed Area Development Programme (RADP)  
  • 5. National Watershed Development Project for Rainfed Areas (NWDPRA)  
  • 6. National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA)

2. Programmes in the Social Security :

  • 1. Social Security is both a philosophy and a legal framework.
  • 2. It represents a system for the State, acting as the representative of society, to protect people who need it.
  • 3. The government announced the following three social security programmes in the 2015 Budget in an effort to progress towards establishing a universal social security system that is geared particularly towards the underprivileged and the destitute.

3. Programmes in area of Social Sector: Following are some rural development programmes in area of social sector undertaken in India :

  • 1. 20 – Point Programme. 
  • 2. Minimum Needs Programme (MNP). 
  • 3. Food For Work Programme (FFW).
  • 4. National Rural Employment Programme (NREP). 
  • 5. Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP).
  • 6. Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY). 
  • 7. Self-Employment for the Educated Unemployed Youths (SEEUY. 
  • 8. Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP). 
  • 9. Indira Awas Yojana (IAY). 

4. MGNREGA: The MGNREGA’s mandate is to give every rural household with adult members who volunteer to perform unskilled manual labour at least 100 days of guaranteed pay employment in a fiscal year.

5. Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) :  

  • i. The project, introduced on December 25, 2000 by the then-prime minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee, aims to improve rural road connection.
  • ii. By encouraging access to social and economic services, this programme reduces poverty by bringing connectivity to areas with little or no connectivity.
  • iii. As a result, people have the chance to connect with the rest of the world, ensuring long-term sustainable poverty reduction.
  • iv. Up until December 2017, about 82% of roads have been constructed, successfully linking many rural areas to cities.
  • v. Before, the plan was only sponsored by the central government; however, following the report of the 14th Finance Commission, both the state and the federal governments now contribute to the cost.

b. What are the social sector initiatives in India ? Describe Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana and NATIONAL SOCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMME (NSAP). 

Ans. A. Social Sector initiatives in India: Following are some rural development programmes in area of social sector undertaken in India :

  • 1. 20 – Point Programme. 
  • 2. Minimum Needs Programme (MNP). 
  • 3. Food For Work Programme (FFW).
  • 4. National Rural Employment Programme (NREP). 
  • 5. Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP).
  • 6. Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY). 
  • 7. Self-Employment for the Educated Unemployed Youths (SEEUY. 
  • 8. Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP). 
  • 9. Indira Awas Yojana (IAY). 

B. Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY) :  

  • 1. The Ministry of Rural Development created SGSY to help low-income families that live in rural areas below the poverty line start their own businesses.
  • 2. SGSY is a comprehensive programme that addresses every facet of self-employment, including the grouping of the underprivileged into Self Help Groups, training, credit, technology, infrastructure, and marketing.
  • 3. Commercial banks, regional rural banks, and cooperative banks will implement the programme, which will be supported 75:25 by the Center and the States.
  • 4. The planning, implementation, and monitoring of the scheme are done in collaboration with Panchayat Raj Institutions, District Rural Development Agencies (DRDAs), Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs), and others.
  • 5. The programme intends to build a significant number of microbusinesses in rural areas.
  • 6. Families eligible for SGSY assistance are chosen from a list of Below Poverty Line (BPL) households found through a BPL census and legally approved by Gram Sabha.
  • 7. The goal of SGSY is to lift every aided family out of poverty within three years by giving them assets that may generate income through a combination of bank credit and government assistance.
  • 8. The programme covers the rural poor, including landowners, labourers without land, educated unemployed, rural craftsmen, and the crippled.

C. National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP) : 

  • 1. The Ministry of Rural Development is in charge of the welfare programme known as NSAP.
  • 2. Both urban and rural communities are participating in this initiative.
  • 3. Within the bounds of its economic capabilities and level of development, the State is required by Article 41 of the Indian Constitution to offer public assistance to its inhabitants in the event of unemployment, old age, illness, and disability.
  • 4. The Government of India included the NSAP in the Central Budget for 1995–96 on August 15, 1995, in conformity with these noble values.
  • 5. The National Old Age Pension System (NOAPS), the National Family Benefit Scheme (NFBS), and the National Maternity Benefit Scheme made up the NSAP at that point (NMBS).
  • 6. These programmes were designed to offer social support benefits to the elderly, BPL households in the event that the main earner passed away, and for maternity.
  • 7. These initiatives sought to guarantee minimum national standards in addition to the advantages that the States were offering at the time or would be offering in the future.

Section 4 : Nilokheri Development Project

a. What is Nilokheri development project ? Explain various objective of the project. 


  • 1. It started during 1948 under the leadership of S.K.Dey who was then, the Minister of Community Development. 
  • 2. Its primary purpose was to develop a new township to rehabilitate displaced persons from West Pakistan.  
  • 3. The project was built in a swampy barren land around the vocational training centre on the highway of Delhi and Ambala.
  • 4. S.K.Dey launched the new scheme called ‘Mazdoor Manzil’ for construction of township at Nilokheri. 
  • 5. This scheme gave the people :  
    • i Training on agricultural implements preparation,
    • ii. Training on cottage industries, 
    • iii. Training on carpentry etc. 
  • 6. Work centres were established in a variety of crafts and industries, including weaving, calico printing, soap making, laundry, baking, tinsmithing, blacksmithing, general mechanics, leather, and a great deal more.
  • 7. Unlike other village development projects, the Nilokheri project was unique.
  • 8. Its goal was to resettle the refugees in a pre-planned community where they could have access to everything needed for a town or village.
  • 9. The colony had a school, a farm for agriculture, a polytechnic training centre, a dairy, a farm for poultry and pigs, a garden for horticulture, a printing press, a factory for clothing, an engineering workshop, a factory for shoes, etc.
  • 10. The urban planning exercise at Nilokheri was great.

b. What is Gandhian concept of rural development ? What is Gandhian approach to rural industrialization ?  


  • 1. The Gandhian approach to rural development places a high weight on moral principles.
  • 2. It prioritises moral principles over material considerations.
  • 3. Hindu scriptures like the Upanishads and the Gita, according to Gandhians, are the origin of moral ideals in general.
  • 4. Gandhiji’s vision of the perfect social order is based on the idea of Rama Rajya.
  • 5. Rama Rajya, according to Gandhiji, is “sovereignty of the people based on moral authority.”
  • 6. Following are the basic tenents of the Gandhian ideal social order : 
  • A. Ideal Village :  
    • 1. The Gandhian ideal of society is based on the village.
    • Gandhi’s ideal village dates back to the Pre-British era, when Indian villages were intended to form a federation of autonomous, self-governing republics.
    • 3. In accordance with Gandhiji, this federation shall be established voluntarily by each village republic, rather than by coercion.
    • 4. The central authority’s sole responsibility will be to coordinate the activities of the various village republics and to oversee and manage matters of common concern, such as the economy, health, banking, and basic industries.
    • 5. The only influence the central authority will have over the village republics will be moral pressure or the power of persuasion.
  • B. Decentralisation :  
    • 1. Gandhi is adamant that the only way to establish village republics is to decentralise social and political authority.
    • 2. In such a structure, the Village Panchayat will have the authority to make decisions.
    • 3. All adults would vote to choose the representatives for a fixed term of five years.
    • 4. A council called the Panchayat would be made up of the elected representatives.
    • 5. The Panchayat performs judicial, executive, and legislative duties.
    • 6. It would take care of the village’s sanitization, health, and education.
    • 7. The villages will provide funds for the Gandhian method of running village affairs.
    • 8. The Panchayat would play a part in educating rural residents about the value of moral and spiritual values.
  • C. Self-sufficiency: 
    • 1. The village should be self-sufficient in terms of its essential requirements, including food, clothes, shelter, and other necessities.
    • 2. To fulfil its needs, the town should grow cotton and food crops.
    • 3. Certain areas of land should also be set aside for cattle and a playground for kids and adults.
    • 4. The village economy should be planned with the goal of giving all of the village’s adults full employment.
    • 5. In order to prevent men from being compelled to leave their villages for cities, each man should be given a job guarantee that will allow him to meet his basic needs there.
  • D. Industrialization :
    • 1. Villages are either passively or actively exploited as a result of industrialization.
    • 2. Since industrialization substitutes labour, it increases unemployment.
    • 3. Village and cottage businesses need to be restored in order to prevent such a catastrophe.
    • 4. They create jobs to help the people meet their requirements and promote community self-sufficiency.
    • Gandhians do not necessarily oppose machines if they achieve two goals: self-sufficiency and full employment.
    • 6. In Gandhiji’s opinion, there would be no opposition to peasants using even cutting-edge tools and machinery that they could create and afford.
  • E. Trusteeship : 
    • 1. Gandhiji was not against the concept of private property, to start with. Nonetheless, he wished to limit the use of private property to that which was required to support an honourable livelihood.
    • 2. He recommended the trusteeship principle as a remedy for the excess.
    • 3. Gandhiji placed a strong emphasis on the idea of trusteeship in both social and economic matters.
    • 4. He was an ardent proponent of holding all social property in trust.

Section 5 : Panchayati Raj Institutions

a. What are the financial organization in Panchayati Raj institutions ? Explain their powers and responsibilities.  

Ans. Need of Finance Commissions :  

  • 1. There have been questions about whether the Panchayati Raj Institutions’ resources are sufficient for the tasks that have been assigned to them.
  • 2. The numerous appointed committees and commissions have generally come to the conclusion that there aren’t enough resources to carry out the tasks assigned to the PRIs.
  • 3. They also lack the resources and the choice to use them in a way that best suits their needs, and they lack the money to make discriminatory purchases.
  • 4. There is room to expand the amount of financial resources available to PRIs.
  • 5. The Finance Commissions were established to strengthen the PRIs’ financial standing.

Objectives of Finance Commissions :

  • 1. To collect data with regard to the finances -income and expenditure of the PRIs. 
  • 2. To study the structure and functions allocated to the Panchayati Raj Institutions at different levels and their performance.
  • 3. To analyse the resource situation with regard to the functions allocated to the PRIs. 4. To analyse the implications of the existing situation of PRIs in relation to the 73rd amendment. 

b. What is the difference between CBO and NGO ? 


1.CBO stands for a community-based organisation with a regional focus.A non-governmental organisation (NGO) is one that doesn’t have any ties to the government and typically works for a cause.
2.Community-based groups are made up of residents who band together to support a particular cause in a particular locale.An NGO is a complete organisation with members who function similarly to employees.
3.The community-based organisation is not led by any legally bound criteria. An NGO will constitute a legal memorandum and an adequate structure of members. 
4.CBOs work for specific communities only. The work of an NGO is allocated on wider prospects.  
5.CBOs get their funding from their community itself. NGOs can sometimes get their funds from corporations, celebrities or even the government. 

Section 6 : HRD for Rural Development

a. Why human resources are important for rural areas ? What are the major challenges faced by HRD for rural development ?

Ans. Human resources are important for rural areas :

  • 1. In a broad sense, human resource development refers to improving people’s knowledge, awareness, and abilities.
  • 2. In a broad sense, human resource development refers to improving people’s knowledge, awareness, and abilities.
  • 3. Many rural poor people lack employable skills, which significantly restricts their earning potential.
  • 4. HRD may significantly enhance the socioeconomic conditions of families and entire towns.
  • 5. Men and women who do not have a lot of formal education or who run microbusinesses to support their families may particularly benefit from this.

Major challenges faced by HRD for rural development are : 

  • 1. Lack of access of education in rural areas. 
  • 2. Poverty and backwardness of people. 
  • 3. Rapid increase in brain drain. 
  • 4. Public health and Sanitation. 
  • 5. Unemployment. 

b. What are the different tools and methods for measuring nutritional status in the community ? Describe anthropometric, and biochemical.  

Ans. 1. The evaluation of anthropometric, biochemical (laboratory), clinical, and dietary data is known as nutritional assessment, and it is used to identify whether an individual or a group of individuals is well-nourished or malnourished.

2. The ABCD methods-anthropometric, biochemical, clinical, and dietary-can be used to assess nutrition.

A. Anthropometric assessment : 

  • 1. The measurement of a person’s body’s dimensions, weight, and proportions is known as anthropometry.
  • Weight, height, the MUAC, head circumference, and skinfold are typical anthropometric metrics.
  • 3. The anthropometric metrics weight-for-height and body mass index (BMI) are displayed as indexes.
  • 4. The z-score for each of these indexes is kept.
  • 5. Z-scores, which are expressed in standard deviations (SD), show the degree and direction of deviation between an individual’s anthropometric measurement and that of a healthy individual of the same age and sex (median).
 What are the different tools and methods for measuring nutritional s
  • 6. In the bell curve figure, the Z-score for the median (middle) measurement is 0. Z-scores lower than the median have minus signs (e.g., – 1). 
  • 7. Z-scores higher than the median have plus signs or no signs (e.g., + 2 or 2). 
  • 8. The further a measurement is from the median (0) on either side, the greater the risk of malnutrition. 

B. Biochemical assessment :

  • 1. Checking a person’s blood, urine, or feces for nutritional levels is known as a biochemical examination.
  • 2. The findings of laboratory tests might advise qualified medical experts about illnesses that might impair appetite or nutritional condition.

Section 7 : Rural Entrepreneurship

a. What is the role of women entrepreneurship in rural India? What is rural entrepreneurship explain the challenges of rural entrepreneurship ? 

Ans. Role of women entrepreneurship in rural India :

  • 1. Women entrepreneurs are those who actively start or establish a business through innovation.
  • 2. Women’s participation in the employment and equity of a business venture is the foundation of women’s entrepreneurship.

Importance of women entrepreneurship in rural development :  

  • 1. If rural women have equitable access to productive resources, opportunities, and public services, they can be important development agents and contribute significantly to the economic growth of a village.
  • 2. Women’s productive and long-term economic engagement is the only way to combat widespread poverty and slow economic progress.
  • 3. If the economic engine only runs half as hard, rural growth will be slow.
  • 4. Women business owners have become a significant force in rural development.
  • 5. Women can carve out a space for themselves in the outside world if they develop talents.
  • 6. It is for this reason that rural development professionals now take women entrepreneurs seriously.

b. What is rural entrepreneurship and what is its need ? Describe it.

Ans. Rural entrepreneurship : 

  • 1. Entrepreneurship emerging in rural areas is called rural entrepreneurship.
  • 2. Establishing industries in rural areas refers to rural entrepreneurship. 
  • 3. Rural entrepreneurship is synonymous of rural industrialization. 
  • Entrepreneurship in rural area is needed because of the following reasons :
  • 1. Employment Generation: Rural business takes a significant quantity of labour and human resources. As a result, it has a great potential for creating jobs and can help with the rural unemployment issue.
  • 2. Income Generation: Rural entrepreneurship has the ability to generate money and narrow the income gap between rural and urban areas by creating jobs.
  • 3. Rural development: Rural entrepreneurship aids in establishing industries in rural areas, which creates jobs and generates cash that directly support rural development.
  • 4. Curbs Rural -Urban migration: By lowering the uneven growth in cities, rural development aids in reducing the rural-urban movement.
  • 5. Builds up village republics: The growth of rural industry is a successful strategy for establishing village republics and increasing their independence.
  • 6. Improved standard of living: Rural business contributes to income production, which raises community prosperity and standard of living.
  • 7. Balanced regional growth: The concentration of industries in rural regions will be influenced by rural entrepreneurship, which results in balanced regional growth.

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