# Short Questions in Energy Science and Engineering for AKTU B.Tech. 2021-22

Hello guys, 🙏, I hope everything is doing well. Today, we will go over all of the short important questions for Energy Science and Engineering 2021-22 (AKTU Btech).

```Dudes 🤔.. You want more useful details regarding this subject. Please keep in mind this as well.

Important Questions For Energy science and engineering :
*Unit-01     *Unit-02
*Unit-03    *Unit-04
*Unit-05    *Short-Q/Ans
*Question-Paper with solution 21-22 ```

## Unit – 1 (Energy and its Usage)

Q1. What is energy?

Ans. Energy is the ability to apply a force across an extended distance. It can be found in a variety of forms, including mechanical, chemical, nuclear, and heat energy.

Q2. Write down various units of energy

Ans. Various units of energy are as follows :

• 1. Joule,
• 2 . Calorie, and
• 3. kWh.

Q3. Define thermal energy reservoir.

Ans. A huge body with infinite heat capacity is referred to as a thermal energy reservoir if it can absorb or reject an infinite amount of heat without significantly changing its temperature.

Q4. What is meant by heat engine cycle and heat engine? What is its function?

Ans. Heat Engine Cycle and Heat Engine: A heat engine cycle is a thermodynamic cycle in which the system receives net heat transfer and loses network heat transmission. A heat engine is a system that performs a heat engine cycle.

Function: A heat engine cycle’s purpose is to constantly produce work while adding heat to the system.

Q5. Define heat pump.

Ans. A heat pump is a mechanical device that continuously keeps the body at a temperature higher than the ambient temperature.

Q6. What do you mean by refrigerator?

Ans. A refrigerator is a machine that continuously keeps the body’s temperature lower than the ambient temperature.

Q7. Define the coefficient of performance.

Ans. The ratio of the desired outcome to the work completed is known as the coefficient of performance.

Q8. What do you mean by the Carnot cycle?

Ans. In an ideal hypothetical cycle known as a Carnot cycle, every process that makes up the cycle is reversible. ·

Q9. State Carnot theorem.

Ans. According to the Carnot theorem, a reversible engine is more efficient than all other heat engines operating between a given constant temperature source and sink.

Q10. Define entropy.

Ans. Entropy is a term used to describe how disorder or unpredictability in a system is measured quantitatively. It deals with how heat energy moves throughout a system.

Q11. What do you mean by the entropy principle?

Ans. This rule states that an isolated system’s entropy can never decrease. It always rises and only stays the same when the process can be reversed.

Mathematically,

dsiso ≥ 0

Q12. Classify the IC engines on the basis of the cycle of operation.

Ans. On the basis of the cycle of operation, IC engines are classified into two

categories :

• 1. Constant volume heat addition cycle engine or Otto cycle engine.
• 2. Constant pressure heat addition cycle engine or diesel cycle engine.

Q13. Write the applications of open cycle gas turbines.

Ans. Applications of open-cycle gas turbines are as follows :

1. In aircraft,                                    4. In locomotive,

2.. In marine,                                   5. In automobile, and

3 . In power generation.

Q14. Why Stirling engines are not used?

Ans. Stirling engines are not employed because they cannot adjust their power output quickly and need time to warm up before they can produce usable power.

Q15. Define supercapacitor.

Ans. A supercapacitor has a high capacitance value compared to conventional capacitors, making it a high-capacity capacitor.

Q16. What is a fuel cell?

Ans. A fuel cell is an electrochemical device that produces electricity from the chemical energy of a fuel.

Q17. Define phase change.

Ans. Phase-change processes include a material’s physical state shifting from one to another, such as from solid to liquid and back again.

## Unit – 2 (Nuclear Energy)

Q1. Write down the various fundamental forces of nature.

Ans. The fundamental forces of nature are as follows :

• 1. Gravitational forces,
• 2. Weak nuclear forces,
• 3. Electromagnetic forces, and
• 4. Strong nuclear forces.

Q2. Define nuclear forces.

Ans. The forces that exist between two or more nucleons are known as nuclear forces. They create atomic nuclei by joining protons and neutrons.

Q3. What is the binding energy?

Ans. The energy needed to dislodge the nuclear forces that bind atoms together is known as binding energy.

Q4. What do you mean by activity?

Ans. The radiation intensity is referred to as activity. This is based on how quickly the element is breaking down.

Q5. What do you mean by half-life?

Ans. The half-life is a measure of how quickly radioactive isotopes decay. It is the amount of time needed for the parent nuclei to decay or disintegrate by half.

Q6. What is average (mean) life?

Q7. What is a chain reaction?

Ans. The term “chain reaction” refers to the process in which, during fission, the number of neutrons keeps on rapidly increasing (in a geometric progression) until the entire fissionable material is dissolved.

Q8. What do you mean by nuclear fusion?

Ans. A reaction known as nuclear fusion occurs when two or more atomic nuclei fuse to create new atomic and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).

Q9. What are the moderators?

Ans. A substance called a moderator is used to slow down neutrons with high kinetic energy.

Q10. Define thermal neutron.

Ans. The average energy of motion for a thermal neutron, a type of free neutron, is equal to the average energy of the particles in the surrounding materials.

Q11. What do you mean by nuclear fission?

Ans. According to definitions, nuclear fission is a sort of nuclear disintegration in which a heavy nucleus divides into two nuclei with energies that are almost equal in mass.

Q12. What do you mean by a pressurized water reactor (PWR)?

Ans. A pressurized water reactor uses both naturally occurring fuel and highly enriched fuel in a light water-cooled and moderated thermal reactor with an innovative core design.

Q13. What is a boiling water reactor (BWR)?

Ans. Fuel is used in a boiling water reactor or enricher. In this, the reactor core itself produces the steam that flows to the turbine.

Q14. Define binding energy curve.

Ans. The term “binding energy curve” refers to the graphical relationship between binding energy per nucleon and mass number.

## Unit – 3 (Solar Energy)

Q1. What do you mean by solar energy?

Ans. Solar energy is the most significant non-conventional form of energy since it is non-polluting and thus contributes to reducing the greenhouse effect. It is also a clean, affordable, and readily available renewable energy.

Q2. Define solar cells.

Ans. Solar cells are energy conversion technologies that employ the photovoltaic effect to transform sunlight into electricity.

Q3. Write down the applications of solar energy.

Ans. Applicatioμs of. solar energy is as follows :

• 1. Solar water heating,
• 2. Solar distillation,
• 3. Solar pumping,
• 4. Solar electric power generation, and
• 5. Solar thermal power production.

Q4. Write down the disadvantages of solar energy.

Ans. The disadvantages of solar energy are as follows :

• 1. High capital cost due to the requirement of a large area.
• 2. Limited to sunshine hours.
• 3. Need of tracking due to changes in the position of the sun.
• 4. There is a need for storage.

Q5. What are the materials used in solar cells ?

Ans. CulnSe2, CaS, Cd-Te, Cu2S, InP, GaAs, Zinc Telluride (ZnTe), and AlSb (Aluminum antimonide) are the materials used to make solar cells. The most used component for solar cells is silicon.

Q6. What do you understand by the maximum efficiency of solar cells?

Ans. The ratio of a solar cell’s greatest electric power output to the incident solar radiation is known as its maximum efficiency.

Q7. What are the different types of solar radiation?

Ans. Different types of solar radiations are as follows :

• 1. Extraterrestrial solar radiations, and

Q8. What are the different devices used for measuring solar radiations?

Ans. Devices used for measuring the solar radiations are as follows :

• 1. Pyranometer,
• 2. Pyrheliometer, and
• 3. Sunshine recorder.

Q9. Define solar constant.

Ans. The solar constant refers to the rate at which solar radiation strikes the upper atmosphere.

Q10. What do you mean by beam radiation?

Ans. Direct radiation, also known as beam radiation, is solar energy that has not been absorbed or scattered and has reached the ground directly from the sun.

Ans. Irradiance: The rate of incident energy per unit area of a surface is known as irradiance.

Albedo: By reflecting from clouds, dispersing, and reflecting at the planet’s surface, the earth returns around 30% of the total solar radiation energy to space. The term for this is albedo.

Q12. Define semiconductors.

Ans. A semiconductor is a material whose electrical conductivity lies between a conductor and an insulator.

Q13. What are the different types of semiconductors?

Ans. Different types of semiconductors are as follows :

Intrinsic Semiconductors: These are pure non-metallic substances like silicon and germanium.

Extrinsic Semiconductor: Extrinsic semiconductor is the term used to describe the intrinsic material when an impurity is added.

Q14. How holes are produced in semiconductors?

Ans. Everywhere in a semiconductor, electrons in atoms pass from the valance band into the conduction band, resulting in holes.

Q15. Explain the attenuation of solar radiation.

Ans. The scattering of solar radiation as it travels through the atmosphere is known as attenuation, and it is brought on by the radiation’s interactions with air molecules, water, and dust.

Q16. What is the principle of solar cell?

Ans. The photovoltaic effect is the mechanism through which solar energy is converted into electricity in solar cells.

## Unit 4 (Conventional and Non-Conventional Energy Sources)

Q1. What are primary energy resources?

Ans. Environmental resources are referred to as fundamental energy resources.

Examples: Fossil fuels, Solar energy, Hydro energy, and Tidal energy.

Q2. What are secondary energy resources?

Ans. Secondary energy resources are those that don’t naturally arise but are created from primary energy sources.

Example: Electrical energy from coal burning, H2 obtained from hydrolysis of H2O, etc.

Q3. Define wind energy.

Ans. An indirect source of energy, wind, can be utilised to power a wind turbine, which in turn powers a generator to provide electricity.

Q4. What are the advantages of wind energy?

Ans. The advantages of wind energy are as follows :

• 1. It is renewable and available at free of cost.
• 2. Low operating cost.
• 3. Economically competitive.
• 4. It is reliable and cost-effective for a large unit.

Q5. What is the basic principle of wind energy conversion?

Ans. The fundamental idea behind wind energy is to transform the kinetic energy of the wind into more useful forms, such as electrical and mechanical power.

Q6. Define the continuity equation.

Ans. The continuity equation is the name given to the equation based on the conservation of mass.

Q7. State Bernoulli’s theorem.

Ans. According to Bernoulli’s theorem, the total energy at any location in an ideal, steady flow of an incompressible fluid is constant.

Q8. Define viscosity.

Ans. The characteristic of a fluid known as viscosity controls how resistant it is to shearing strains. It is a measurement of the internal fluid friction that results in flow resistance.

Q9. Define wind farms.

Ans. The average annual wind speed should not be less than 7 m/s and should not be away from the distribution center because the wind farms are located in open spaces far from cities, mountains, and forests.

Q10. Explain the drag and lift.

Ans. Drag: The component of the total force (FR) in the direction of motion is called drag. This component is denoted by FD·

Lift: The component of the total force· (FR) in the direction perpendicular to the direction of motion is known as lift. This is denoted by FL.

Q11. Give the sources of geothermal energy.

Ans. Sources of geothermal energy are as follows :

• 1. Hydrothermal energy sources,
• 2. Vapour dominated sources,
• 3. Hot dry rock sources,
• 4. Geopressured sources, and
• 5. Magma sources.

Q12. Define ocean thermal energy conversion.

Ans. The process of transforming ocean thermal energy into usable energy is known as ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). The OTEC technology transforms solar energy into electrical energy.

Q13. How tides are generated?

Ans. The sun and moon’s gravitational pull on the ocean, the planet’s rotation on its axis, and the relative positions of the earth, moon, and sun all work together to produce tides.

Q14. Write the name of devices used for wave energy conversion.

Ans. Devices used for wave energy conversion are as follows :

• 1. Hose pump,
• 2. Pelamis, and
• 3. Oscillating water column device.

Q15. Define hydropower.

Ans. Hydropower is a form of useful energy that is obtained from the force of falling or swiftly flowing water.

Q16. What are the main components of a wind energy conversion system (WECS)?

Ans. The main components of the wind energy conversion system are as

follows:

• 1. Rotor with a blade,
• 2. Electromagnetic brakes,
• 3. Controller,
• 4. Mechanical brakes,
• 5 . Gearbox,
• 6. Generator,
• 7. Shaft, and
• 8. Flap or tail vane.

## Unit – 5 (Systems and Synthesis)

Ans. The particles and photons released during atomic nucleus-based reactions are referred to as nuclear radiation.

Q2. What are the different types of nuclear radiation?

Ans. Different types of nuclear radiation are as follows :

1.  Alpha rays,                             2. Beta rays,

3. Gamma rays, and                   4. X-rays.

Q3. What do you understand by nuclear waste?

Ans. Nuclear waste is any radioactive byproduct of the fusion, fission, processing, or refinement of radioactive elements.

Q4. Write down the name of some nuclear waste disposal! methods.

Ans. Some nuclear waste disposal methods are as follows :

1.  Geological disposal,                         2. Reprocessing,

3. Transmutation, and                           4. Space disposal.

Q5. What are the various factors affecting climate change?

Ans. Factors affecting climate change are as follows :

• 1. Latitude,
• 2. Altitude or height from sea level,
• 3. Direction of wind,
• 4. Ocean currents, and
• 5. Forest.

Q6. Define energy conservation.

Ans. Energy conservation refers to strategies for reducing energy use by eliminating waste and promoting effectiveness.

Q7. Classify various types of energy storage systems.

Ans. Various types of energy storage systems are :

• L Pumped hydro energy storage,
• 2. Compressed air energy storage,
• 3. Battery storage energy system,
• 4 . Flow battery energy storage system, and
• 5. Hydrogen based energy storage system.

Q8. Write down the disadvantages of green energy.

Ans. The disadvantages of green energy are as follows :

1. High installation cost. · ·

2. Renewable energy often relies on the weather for its source of power.

Q9. What are the seven principles of green architecture?

Ans. The seven principles of green architecture are as follows :

1.  Site and its surroundings,            2. Energy efficiency,

3. Water efficiency,                            4. Material efficiency,

5. Indoor air quality,                           6. Waste reduction, and

7 . Low maintenance costs.

Q10. What is LEED certification?

Ans. The LEED certification process is a method for planning and constructing buildings that are water and energy efficient and for which green and sustainable materials and resources will be employed during construction.

Q11. Name some energy-related enterprises.

Ans. Some energy-related enterprises are as follows :

• 1.  Fossils fuels industry,
• 2. Nuclear Power Industry, and
• 3. Renewable energy industry.

Q12. Define embodied energy.

Ans. Embodied energy is the amount of energy used during all of the steps involved in creating a building, including resource extraction and processing, manufacture, transportation, and product delivery.

Q13. Write down the sources of nuclear waste.

Ans. The following are the sources of nuclear waste :

1. Nuclear fuel cycle,                   2. Legacy waste,

3. Medicine, and                          4. Industry.

Q14. What is green energy?

Ans. Green energy is clean energy since it doesn’t release greenhouse gases into the atmosphere that cause global warming and is produced with little or no environmental impact.

Q15. What is an energy audit?

Ans. An analysis of energy usage is used in an energy audit to check for improvements in energy efficiency. It identifies options for energy savings and evaluates them to determine savings.