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AKTU B.Tech Computer System Security Unit 5 Internet Infrastructure Questions

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Important Questions For Computer System Security: 
*Unit-01     *Unit-02    
*Unit-03    *Unit-04 
*Unit-05    *Short-Q/Ans
*Question-Paper with solution 21-22 

Q1. Give a short summary of IP protocol functions.

Ans. Following are the functions of internet protocols :

1. Addressing :

  • a . IP has to know where to distribute datagrams in order to carry out its task of doing so. Because of this, IP has a system for host addressing.
  • b. Since IP uses internetworks to communicate, its architecture is set up to support unique device addressing over arbitrary big networks.
  • c. It also has a structure to make it easier to route datagrams to other networks if necessary.
  • d. Understanding the IP addressing scheme is crucial to comprehending TCP/IP because the majority of other TCP/IP protocols use IP.

2. Data encapsulation and formatting / packaging :

  • a. The transport layer protocols UDP and TCP are accepted by IP, the TCP/IP network layer protocol.
  • b. It then uses a unique format to encapsulate this data into an IP datagram before sending it.

3. Fragmentation and reassembly :

  • a. For local network transmission, IP datagrams are transmitted down to the data link layer.
  • b. Each physical/data link network employing IP may have a varied maximum frame size, nevertheless.
  • c. Because of this, IP has the capability to split IP datagrams into smaller units so that they can each be transported on the local network separately.
  • d. The receiving device uses the reassembly function to recreate the whole IP datagram again.

Q2. Define routing protocols.


  • 1. In order for routers to choose the best route between any two nodes on a computer network, they must communicate with one another according to a routing protocol.
  • 2.Data packets are sent via the internet’s networks from router to router until they reach their destination computer. Routers are responsible for traffic direction on the internet.
  • 3. Algorithms for routing choose a specified path. Each router only has prior knowledge of the networks that are immediately connected to it.
  • 4. This information is distributed throughout the network through a routing system, initially among close neighbours. In this method, routers learn about the network’s topology.
  • 5. routing protocols’ adaptability to changing circumstances, such as downed computers and data connections.

Q3. How DNS rebinding work?

Ans. DNS rebinding works as :

  • 1. A DNS server that is under the attacker’s control receives a domain that has been registered by the attacker (for example,
  • 2. The DNS response cannot be cached since the server is set up to reply with an extremely short Time-To-Live (TTL) record. The attacker’s DNS server first replies with the IP address of a server hosting the malicious client-side code when the victim navigates to the malicious domain.
  • 3. They might direct the victim’s browser, for instance, to a website that has malicious JavaScript or Flash scripts that are designed to run on the victim’s machine.
  • 4. The malicious client-side code makes additional accesses to the original domain name (such as
  • 5. The same-origin policy allows for these. The script causes the victim’s browser to issue a fresh DNS request for the domain, to which the attacker responds with a fresh IP address.
  • 6 . For instance, they might respond with the IP address of a destination located somewhere on the Internet or an internal IP address.

Q4. Explain key ,management protocol.


  • 1. The phrase “key management protocol” refers to a group of procedures used in the creation, installation, transcription, recording, modification, disposal, and maintenance of keys used in cryptography.
  • 2. It is necessary for any cryptosystem to continue operating securely.
  • 3. The various functions of key management protocol are :

a. Generation : This procedure entails choosing a key that will be used to encrypt and decrypt the messages.

b. Distribution : All the work that goes into transporting the key from its generation site to its intended use point is included in this process.

c. Installation : This procedure entails inserting the key into the storage of the machine or procedure that requires it.

d. Storage : This procedure entails protecting the integrity of the storage mechanism while maintaining the confidentiality of installed or saved keys.

e. Change : This process involves ending with the use of the key and starting with the use of another key.

f. Control : This procedure relates to the capacity to exercise a directing affect over the key’s usage and content.

Q5. Discuss link layer connection in TCP/IP model.


  • 1. Networking protocols that only work on the local network segment (link) that a host is connected to make up the link layer in the TCP/IP paradigm. The packets of this protocol are not sent to other networks.
  • 2. The protocols that specify communication between local (on-link) network nodes, which serve to preserve link states between the local nodes, such as the local network topology, and which typically use protocols based on the framing of packets unique to the link types, are included in the link layer.
  • 3. The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), the Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP), and the Neighbour Discovery Protocol are the primary protocols described in this layer by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) (NOP).
  • 4. The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) protocol stack’s data link layer and physical layer are frequently directly compared to the link layer of the TCP/IP architecture. Although they somewhat overlap in terms of technical protocol coverage, they are not the same.
  • 5. Since layering in TCP/IP is not a primary design criterion and is generally regarded as undesirable, direct or stringent comparisons should be avoided.

Q6. What is packet filtering firewall? Explain its advantage and disadvantage.

Ans. Packet filtering firewall :

  • 1. Packet filtering firewall is a technique used to control network access by monitoring outgoing and incoming packets.
  • 2. Based on the source and destination Internet Protocol (IP) address, protocols, and ports, packet filtering firewalls allow or deny packets.

Advantages :

  • 1. They are easy since all that is needed to decide whether to accept or reject a packet is one rule.
  • 2. Users do not need to be aware that packet filters exist because they are transparent to them.
  • 3. They operate at a fast speed as compared to other techniques.
  • 4. When establishing packet-filtering firewalls, the client computers do not need to be specially configured.
  • 5. They shield internal hosts’ IP addresses from the outside network.

Disadvantages :

  • 1. They cannot impose access restrictions on FTP services because they cannot inspect the application layer data contained in the packets.
  • 2. Correctly configuring the packet-filtering rules is a challenging undertaking.
  • 3. They have no alert systems and no authentication support.
  • 4. They are not well suited to application layer protocols because of their stateless nature.
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