Learn more about Social Science in CBSE 10th Class with these comprehensive notes, solved papers, and important questions. Make the most of this useful resource to improve your academic achievement.
Time allowed:3 Hours Maximum Marks:80
SECTION – A
1. Explain the aim to form ‘Zollverein’, a Customs Union, in 1834 in Germany. 
Explain the main reason responsible for the eruption of a major protest in Saigon Native Girls School in Vietnam in 1926.
Ans. Zollverein was a customs union formed in 1834 at the initiative of Prussia. The union abolished tariff barriers and internal custom dues and was willing to establish free trade with neighbouring states. It reduced the number of currencies from thirty to two. Most German states joined the Zollverein.
2. Why was printing of textbooks sponsored by the Imperial State in China? 
Why did Chandu Menon give up the idea of translation of ‘English Novels’ in Malayalam?
Ans. The printing of textbooks were sponsored by the Imperial State in China because China possessed a large bureaucratic system, which recruited their personnel through Civil service examinations. That is why, textbooks were printed in large numbers to provide them with study material.
3. How has Shillong solved the problem of acute shortage of water? 
How has Tamil Nadu solved the problem of acute shortage of water?
Ans. Shillong has been able to deal with the problem of acute shortage of water by setting up Bamboo drip irrigation systems and Roof top rainwater harvesting. This helped Shillong meet its total requirement of each household.
Tamil Nadu has been able to deal with the problem of acute shortage of water by adopting rooftop water harvesting techniques. This practice was made mandatory under the law for all houses across the state.
4. How did the feeling of alienation develop among the Sri Lankan Tamils? 
Ans. The measures of the act of 1956 introduced by Sinhalese Government made the Sri Lankan Tamils feel alienated. They felt that none of the major political parties led by the Buddhist Sinhalese were sensitive towards their language and culture. They also felt that the constitution and policies of the government denied them equal political rights, discriminated against them in terms of jobs and other opportunities by ignoring their interests.
5. What may be a developmental goal of farmers who depend only on rain for growing crops? 
What may be a developmental goal of urban unemployed youth?
Ans. The developmental goal for a farmer who depends only on rain for irrigating his crops might be to have access to better water harvesting and irrigation techniques or be compensated in the absence of rain.
The developmental goal for an urban unemployed youth would be to get a decent job suitable to his/her qualifications and skills or get proper career counselling.
6. Give one example each of modern currency and older currency. 
Ans. An example of modern currency is the plastic money that we use in the form of debit and credit cards.
An example of older currency is the bronze coins that were used in earlier times.
7. If you want to purchase an electrical valuable good, what logo would you like to see to confirm its quality?**
SECTION – B
8. Describe the great economic hardships that prevailed in Europe during the 1930s. 
Describe the serious problem faced by the modern part of Hanoi in 1903.
Ans. Great economic hardships were faced by the people of Europe in 1930s. Some of the difficulties that they faced were:
- (i) The ratio of the rise of population was larger than that of employment generation. People from rural areas were migrating to cities in search of employment, which was not easily available because of overcrowding,
- (ii) Small producers in towns (especially textile producing industries) were often overthrown by the cheap machines. They faced stiff competition from the imports from England.
- (iii) Peasants still suffered under the burden of feudal dues and obligations in some regions of Europe. Rise of food prices and unemployment led to widespread pauperism in the country.
9. How had the printing press created a new culture of reading in Europe? Explain with examples. 
How had Charles Dickens depicted the terrible effects of industrialisation on peoples lives and characters? Explain with examples.
Ans. With the introduction of the printing press, a new wave of print culture began in Europe. It was defined by accelerated production of books and printed material. Mass production of books lead to decrease in the prices of the books and their circulation increased. Now the reading culture was not restricted only to the elites but, even the common people had easy access to these books.
Printers also focused on publishing folk tales and ballads, well-illustrated with pictures so that the books could be enjoyed even by a less educated audience from the villages. These books gave an opportunity to more and more people to come in contact with the ideas of philosophers and leading thinkers of the time. Thus, this changed the reading culture of Europe widely.
10. Describe any three main features of ‘Alluvial soil’ found in India. 
Describe any three main features of ‘Black soil’ found in India.
Ans. Major characteristics of Alluvial Soil are:
- (i) Alluvial soil is considered as one of the most fertile soils amongst all soil types Alluvial soil covers the entire northern plains in India.
- (ii) Alluvial soil contains sand, silt and clay mainly due to silt deposited by the Indo Gangetic-Brahmaputra rivers. According to age, it is classified into Bhangar (old alluvial) and Khadar (new alluvial).
- (iii) Alluvial soil contains an ample amount of potash, phosphoric acid and lime. This soil is ideal for the growth of crops like sugarcane, wheat and rice etc.
Major characteristics of Black soil are:
- (i) Black soil is fine textured and clayey in nature. It is suitable for growing cotton.
- (ii) Black soil has high amount of lime, iron, magnesium and generally low quantities of Phosphorus, Nitrogen and organic matter.
- (iii) It is formed from weathered lava rocks, thus is black in colour.
- (iv) It has a high clay content and therefore is highly retentive of water. It is extremely fertile in most of the places where it is found.
11. The dams that were constructed to control floods have triggered floods.” Analyse the statement. 
Ans. Ourfirst Prime Minister, Mr. Jawaharlal Nehru, called the dams “the temple of modern India”. These dams, that have been constructed to support the economic development of the country, can be destructive at times.
They may cause floods because sometimes, they are constructed without proper planning and sometimes low standard construction material is used. This inferior quality of construction material increases the chances of floods. Construction of these dams can make the area, in which they are constructed, ‘earthquake prone, which may lead to landslides and the water to flow out of dams.
12. Name any two subjects that are included in Concurrent List. How are laws made on these subjects? Explain. 
How is sharing of power between the Union and the State Governments basic to the structure of the Constitution of India? Explain.
Ans. Concurrent List includes subjects of common interest to both the Union and State government. These subjects are education, forest, trade unions, marriage, adoption, and succession etc.
Both the State and the Union governments can make laws on these subjects. But if the laws made by both the government contradict each other, or a dead lock is created, then the law made by the Union government will prevail.
Sharing of power between the Union and the State governments is very basic to the structure of the Constitution. The Constitution has distributed the legislative powers between the state government and Union government by dividing the subjects in Union list and State list, on which, these governments can make laws respectively. There is a Concurrent list as well on which, both the governments can make laws. Also, State governments enjoy their own power in states like Iammu and Kashmir. Many provisions of the Indian Constitution are not applicable in the states without the approval of the state government. On the other hand, the Union government enjoys its own hold over some of the union territories. This distribution of power is well embedded in the provisions of the constitution and is thus is its basic structure.
14. How can caste take several forms in politics? Explain with examples. 
Ans. Caste is considered to be the sole basis of social community. People belonging to the same caste belong to a natural social community and have the same interests which they share amongst themselves and no one else. Caste can take various forms in politics.
- (i) Caste composition of an electorate is always kept in mind when the nominations are decided by the party during elections. They tend to nominate candidates of different castes so as to muster necessary support to win elections. When governments are formed, the parties make sure that these candidates of different castes find a place in the set up. Political parties are known to favour some castes and are even recognized as representatives of these castes. This brings prejudice and biasness in terms of decisions, idealogies and other such important matters.
- (ii) Universal Adult franchise has helped in compelling the political parties to mobilize and have an inclusive approach towards the castes that were earlier ignored by them. However, the inclusion of caste in politics has brought unnecessary violence and controversies. Parties try to favour certain caste and in this way, secure vote bank. Parties also incite people on the pretext of casteism, thus create political disasters.
15. “Crude oil reserves are limited all over the world. If people continue to extract it at the present rate, the reserves would last only 35 – 40 years more” Explain any three ways to solve this problem. 
Ans. Crude oil is a non-renewable resource of energy. It takes millions of years for the formation of this fuel, hence it must be used judiciously. This type of fuel is being used at a faster rate than they are being produced. This causes depletion and scarcity of crude oil.
Steps which can be under taken to conserve this non-renewable source of energy are:
- (i) Use of public transport like buses and trains instead of self-owned vehicles will help to conserve petroleum. Carpooling will reduce the consumption of fuel, thus scarcity will be better dealt with.
- (ii) Use of cycles wherever possible instead of using motorbikes or cars.
- (iii) Waxing floors with beeswax instead of petroleum based commercial wax can also be beneficial.
16. Why is it necessary to increase a large number of banks mainly in rural areas? Explain. 
Why are service conditions of formal sector loans better than informal sector? Explain.
Ans. It is important to open more banks in the rural areas as formal sector of credit is missing. The practise of borrowing from the informal sector that currently exists in rural areas, for example local moneylenders, has a number of disadvantages.
- (i) The informal sector charges a higher rate of interest. Informal sector make loans very expensive as there are no external organizations controlling the credit activities of lenders.
- (ii) Informal sector involves high degree of risk as there are no proper set of rules for repayment and there is a lot of exploitation of poor farmers.
- (iii) Lenders may exploit the borrowers, they may engage in threats and intimidation to ensure repayment of loans. There is no written agreement between the lender and the borrower. There is no legal recourse in case of informal sources of credit.
- (i) This sector is mainly supervised by the RBI.
- (ii) It includes banks and cooperatives, thus every clause is in writing and clear to comprehend.
- (iii) In this sector of credit, collateral is required.
- (iv) It provides loans comparatively at lower rates.
- (v) It doesn’t lead to a debt trap.
- (i) No external organisation supervises this sector.
- (ii) The lenders are mainly moneylenders, friends, relatives, traders and landowners etc.
- (iii) Collateral is not required, thus it involves risk.
- (iv) This sector charges higher interest rates without any rules or regulation.
- (v) This could lead to a debt trap.
17. How can the Government of India play a major role to make globalization more fair? Explain with examples. 
How has globalization affected the life of Indians? Explain with examples.
Ans. Fair globalization would create equal opportunities for all and would ensure that the benefits of globalization are shared better. The government can play a major role in making this possible. The policies of the government must protect the interests of all the people of the country, not only of the rich and powerful. Hence, the government can play a functional role by helping bridge the gap between the two.
The government must ensure that the labour laws are properly implemented and the workers get their rights. Support to the domestic and smaller producers must be ensured by making them strong enough to enter the competitive global market.
It is necessary for the developing countries to have stronger trade and investment rules. They should negotiate at the WTO for fairer rules and regulations.
Globalization has contributed in booming the Indian economy in following ways :
- (i) Greater competition among producers resulting from globalisation is a great advantage to consumers as there is wider choice regarding every product before them.
- (ii) Due to globalisation, many MNCs have increased their investments in India, this has not only helped in the inflow of capital but also largely helped in employment generation.
- (iii) Local companies supplying raw materials to industries that have been set as a result of the globalization, have prospered leaps and bounds.
- (iv) Large Indian companies have emerged as multinational companies. This has helped our country to increase our contacts around the world. Globalisation has helped increase our GDP and per capita income, thus making the living standards better across the globe.
18. How are consumers enjoying the ‘right to be informed’ in their daily life? Explain with examples.** 
SECTION – C
19. How had the First World War created economic problems in India? Explain with examples. 
How had a variety of cultural processes developed sense of collective belongingness in India during the 19th century? Explain with examples.
Ans. The economic effects of the First World War were:
- (i) The First World War led to huge expenditures in defence. These expenditures were to be financed by increasing the taxes and by raising custom duties.
- (ii) During the time of the First World War, crop failure resulted in acute shortage of food.
- (iii) During the war, the food prices increased, they almost doubled between 1913 and 1918. This increased the hardships of the people of India.
- (iv) Villages were called upon to supply soldiers. At some rural places, the colonial government forced people to join the army. It caused widespread resentment and anger amongst the people. It set the stage for the Great Depression.
- (v) There was spread of influenza epidemic which contributed to the hardships of the people. The war weakened the gold standard.
Nationalism spreads when people begin to believe that they are all part of the same nation and when they discover that it binds them together. This sense of collective belonging unites people of different communities, regions or languages by experience of many united struggles.
There were also a variety of cultural processes through which nationalism captured people’s imagination. History and fiction, folklore, and songs, popular poems and symbols, all played a vital role in the awakening of the spirit of nationalism. The identity of a nation is often symbolised by a figure or image. It was in the early 19th century, with the growth of nationalism that the identity of India came to be visually associated with the image of Bharat Mata. The image was first Created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay and in the 1870s he wrote Vande Mataram’ as a hymn to the motherland. Moved by the Swadeshi movement, Abanindranath Tagore painted his famous image of Bharat Mata. In this painting, Bharat Mata is portrayed as an ascetic figure, she is calm, composed, divine and spiritual.
Ideas of nationalism also developed through a movement to revive Indian folklore. In the late 19th century India, nationalists began recording folk tales sung by bards and they toured villages to gather folk songs and legends.
These tales gave a true picture of traditional culture that had been corrupted and damaged by outside forces. When people would hear these songs, they would be filled with a spirit of belongingness to the country. They felt energised and highly patriotic. It was thus, essential to spread this folk tradition in order to discover citizen’s national identity and restore a sense of pride for their past.
20. Describe the role of technology in transformation of the world in the nineteenth century. 
Describe the life of workers during the nineteenth century in England.
Ans. The making of modern global world was characterized by major discoveries and inventions. Technological inventions helped the world develop in these ways :
- (i) Railways, steamships, telegraphs transformed the trade and led to easy transportation of goods and raw materials.
- (ii) Technological advancements stimulated the process of industrialization, which expanded production of goods and trade.
- (iii) Refrigerated ships made transportation of perishable products, like meat, over long distances easy.
- (iv) There was also development of the printing press that lead to the print revolution.
- (v) Communication was made easy with the invention of telephones, computers and other things like cables, network towers etc.
The life of the workers in the 19th century was miserable. They were given lower wages and were made to work for longer hours. This was the reason poverty was more prominent in cities as compared to villages. They had to work in factories where the working environment was hazardous. They dealt with machines without proper training and education, which was dangerous.
People from countryside rushed to cities in search of new jobs. Only few of those, whose friends and relatives were already working in the factories could get jobs. The living conditions were very downtrodden that it was expected of such people to die in a workhouse, hospital or lunatic asylum rather than in some decent working areas. Nearly 1 million Londoners (about one-fifth of the population of London at the time) were very poor and living in unhabitable conditions.
The over-congestion was leading to epidemic diseases in the whole city. There was an urgent need to increase the number of rooms these labourers were living in. There was no proper drinking water available sometimes. Life expectancy of these poor people was nearly 29 years of age while it was near about 55 years of age for the middle and upper class people.
21. Name the two major beverage crops grown in India. Describe their growing areas. 
Ans. Tea and Coffee are the two most important beverage crops of India.
Assam is a major tea producing state in India along with West Bengal Kerala and Tamil Nadu. The cropping season in Assam begins as early as March and extends almost to mid-December. Besides, the popular black tea, Assam also produces small quantities of white and green tea. This state has favourable conditions for the growth of tea.
The tea plant grows well in tropical and sub-tropical climates. It requires deep and fertile well-drained soil, rich in humus and organic matter. Tea bushes require moist, frost-free and warm climate all through the year with abundant skilled labour. Frequent evenly distributed showers over the year ensure continuous growth of tender tea leaves. The following are the conditions required for tea cultivation:
Temperature- 10-30 degrees Celsius.
Rainfall – average yearly rainfall of 200 cm.
Altitude – ground level of between 600-2000 m above sea level.
Coffee is a tropical plant which is also grown in semi-tropical climate. Coffee tree requires heat, humidity and abundant rainfall. Karnataka, the largest coffee producing state has favourable conditions necessary for coffee cultivation.
The temperature of the place is 23°C to 28°C. Growth is most rapid during hot, rainy season and during cool, dry season, berries ripen and get ready for picking. Bright sunshine and warm weather are necessary for the harvesting.
It needs rainfall between 60-85 inches. Water stagnation is very harmful for coffee plants; therefore, hill slopes are best suitable for growing it.
Soil is the guiding factor in coffee plantation. The ideal soil is one with a good sub-surface drainage, and one that is easily workable. The presence of humus and other nitrogenous matter in the soil is an advantage.
22. How can the industrial pollution of fresh water be reduced? Explain various ways. 
Ans. Main causes of water pollution is due to the wastes discharged from factories, refineries into water bodies. These wastes contains harmful chemicals such as alkalis, acids etc., and toxic metals like mercury, lead, arsenic etc. which kill aquatic life.
The following steps can be taken to reduce the industrial pollution :
- (i) Restructuring the manufacturing processes to reduce or eliminate pollutants, like, lead, zinc, arsenic through a process called Pollution Prevention. Chimneys for treating of gaseous waste are also important.
- (ii) It is necessary to encourage industries to promote ‘green’ methods of product production and. It includes environment friendly operating processes.
- (iii) It is advisable to create cooling ponds which are man-made and designed to cool the heated waters of industries by evaporation, condensation and radiation.
- (iv) It is very important to attach water treatment plant in industries for filtration of sewage before it enters the water bodies. Sewage treatment plants are important for treatment of polluted water.
23. “Democracies do not appear to be very successful in reducing economic inequalities.” Justify the statement. 
“Democracy is a better form of government than any other form of government.” Justify the statement.
Ans. In most of the democracies, a small number of ultra-rich people enjoy a highly disproportionate share of wealth and income. The share of the rich class is increasing, whereas those who are at the bottom of the society, have very little to depend upon.
Even in India, the poor constitute a large proportion of the voters and no party will like to lose their votes. Yet, democratically elected government do not appear to be keen on addressing the question of poverty as is expected of them. The situation is much worse in some other countries, like in Bangladesh more than half of its population live in poverty. People in several poor countries are now dependent on the rich countries even for basic food supplies.
Democracies are based on political equality. All citizens have equal right in electing representatives, but this is not so in the economic field. Economic equality comes by the equitable distribution of wealth, but this is not true in democracy. The poor are becoming poorer, and sometimes they find it difficult to even meet the basic needs of life like food, shelter, health and education.
There can be many factors that are prevailing in a country that make it incapable to bring about equitable distribution of wealth.
Large population : Rise in population leads to rise in family size. But, because the family income is less the people have to adjust and manage with meagre pay.
Unemployment : Because of population explosion, the number of job opportunities are very less compared to the people. A large number of educated people are still without jobs.
Vicious circle of poverty : Poor people still have to be dependent on moneylenders to fulfill their basic needs as their income doesn’t substitute their needs.
Low literacy rate : Education is still considered to be a dream for many.
All of these factors make it difficult for a democratic government to function and work efficiently.
Democracy is better than other forms of government because :
- (i) In a democracy, every individual has a right to vote and choose his representatives in the government. Thus, it is more representative and popular.
- (ii) The government is of the people and the laws are made by the people (or the chosen representatives) in the government. Laws are made to protect the liberty and freedom of the people. Thus, the laws are popular opinion of the citizens on the whole.
- (iii) In a democracy, no particular religion, region, race or language is given special preference. All individuals are given equal rights and freedom, and there is no discrimination.
- (iv) The government is not by force. The opposition parties are allowed to criticise the government. Hence, there is a system of checks and balances in the form of democratic government.
- (v) Since every individual is given equal rights, there is less danger of conflicts in society. There are less conflicts based on caste, religion or region and less social tensions in society. Equitable distribution of opportunities is encouraged.
24. What is a political party? Explain any four characteristics of a political party.
Ans. Political party is an organised group of people having common ideology and its aim is to contest elections and come to power.
Four characteristics of political parties are given below:
- (i) Political parties seek control over the government through the process of election.
- (ii) Parties run the government. They ensure that a country is governed as per set ideologies.
- (iii) Parties frame their own policies in the form of manifestos which includes their vision on the basis of which they would establish governance in the country.
- (iv) Political parties make laws and policies for the country. Members of the legislature belongs to various political parties and are guided by party ideologies.
- (v) Parties give representation to diverse interest in society and give recognition to minorities.
- (vi) A political party has a leader, active members and followers who support the party. (Any four)
25. Compare the economic activities of the private sector with that of the public sector. 
|Ownership of assets and delivery of services is in the hands of the private individuals or companies.
|The government owns most of the assets and provides all services.
|Their main motive is to earn profit.
|Their main motive is public welfare rather than to earn profit.
|Private sector collects money for the services they provide.
|The Government raises money for various activities through taxes.
|Due to the motive of earning profit it does not invest funds to construct infrastructures for public utility/facility.
|Due to motives of public welfare, it invests funds to construct infrastructures for public utility/facility, like construction of roads, bridges, etc.
|Examples: Tata Iron and Steel Company Ltd. (TISCO), Reliance Industries Ltd., etc.
|Examples : Railways, post office, police station, etc.
SECTION – D
26. (A) Two features ‘a’ and ‘b’ are marked on the given political outline map of India. Identify these features with the help of the following information and write their correct names on the lines marked near them :
(a) The place where the Indian National Congress Session was held.
(b) The place where Gandhiji violated the salt law. [1 x 2 = 2]
(B) Locate and label any three of the following with appropriate symbols on the same given outline political map of India : [1 x 3 = 3]
(i) Bokaro** – Iron and Steel Plant
(ii) Gandhinagar – Software Technology Park
(iii) Tarapur – Nuclear Power Plant
(iv) Salal – Dam
(v) Tuticorin – Seaport